Analysis of Humiliation in Connection with Hitler and Mussolini by Ralph Summy
Analysis of Humiliation in Connection with Hitler and Mussolini by Ralph Summy:
It wasn't that NOBODY cared; many people (e.g., Lord Cecil and the League of Nations Union) pointed out that Hitler's plan and the humiliation behind it were clearly set out in Mein Kampf and elsewhere. The problem was the allied policymakers, many of whom were themselves the initial problem, having brought about Germany's humiliation at Versailles and in their subsequent actions. The Nazis could mine the deeply-felt humiliation of the proud German people. Mussolini is another example of a tyrant whose extreme nationalism was riddled with humiliation. He rallied the support of his nation to militarise and invade Abyssinia on the basis of betrayal and humiliation. This could be traced to the broken promises of Britain and France as they failed to honour their pledges of the 1915 London Treaty to divide up North Africa in a way also favouring Italy. It was on the basis of these promises that Italy came into the war against Germany. When the Treaty was ignored at Versailles and the former North African colonies of Germany divided so as to benefit mainly France and Britain, the Italians felt cheated and humiliated and became fair game for Mussolini's aggressive actions. I guess the examples from which the West never seems to learn are endless, despite the fact that not humiliating your opponent is a basic principle of conflict resolution.
Ralph adds in another email (24th July 2005):
Your research [on humiliation] is very much needed in today's violence-prone world where a failure to empathise with THE OTHER, looking at a situation from the other's perspective without necessarily condoning it or the response, lies at the root of much of the violence problem.Posted by Evelin at July 23, 2005 07:06 AM