Evelin Lindner's Publications

We appreciate that you contact Evelin Lindner if you wish to quote from the texts listed further down. Texts may usually be copied for non-profit educational use if proper credit is given to the author and Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies. No part of these files may be transmitted, distributed or reproduced in any other way without permission from the author.

Books

Honor, Humiliation, and Terror: An Explosive Mix – And How We Can Defuse It with Dignity
Lake Oswego, OR: World Dignity University Press, 2017

terror  •  Foreword by Linda Hartling, Director of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies
  •  Available from the publisher
  •  Available from Amazon
  •  ISBN: 978-1-937570-97-2
  •  EISBN: 978-1-937570-97-3
  •  Publication Date: 2017
  •  List Price: 25.00 €, 28.00 USD, 22.00 LBP
  •  Media Type: Paperback
  •  Available as eBook. See also the author's personal digital edition with full endnotes

A Dignity Economy: Creating an Economy that Serves Human Dignity and Preserves Our Planet
Lake Oswego, OR: World Dignity University Press, 2012

economy  •  Foreword by Dignity Press's directors Linda Hartling and Ulrich Spalthoff
  •  Available from the publisher
  •  Available from Amazon
  •  ISBN: 978-1-937570-03-3
  •  EISBN: 978-1-937570-04-0
  •  Publication Date: 2012
  •  List Price: 22.00 €, 28.00 USD, 18.00 LBP
  •  Media Type: Paperback
  •  eBook: See the author's personal digital edition

Gender, Humiliation, and Global Security: Dignifying Relationships from Love, Sex, and Parenthood to World Affairs
Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, An Imprint of ABC-CLIO, 2010

gender  •  Foreword by Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Mpilo Tutu
  and Afterword by Linda M. Hartling in Honor of Jean Baker Miller and Donald C. Klein
  •  Available from the publisher in the US, or from the publisher in the UK
  •  Available from Amazon
  •  ISBN: 0-313-35485-5
  •  EISBN: 978-0-313-35485-4
  •  Praeger Security International General Interest
  •  Publication Date: 2010
  •  List Price: $44.95 (UK Sterling Price: £31.95)
  •  Media Type: Hardcover
  •  Available as Ebook


Emotion and Conflict: How Human Rights Can Dignify Emotion and Help Us Wage Good Conflict

Westport, CT, London: Praeger, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2009

emotion  •  Foreword by Morton Deutsch
  •  Available from the publisher
  •  Available from Amazon
  •  Book Code: C37237
  •  ISBN: ISBN: 978-0-313-37237-7, ISSN: 1546-668X
  •  Praeger Security International General Interest
  •  Publication Date: 3/30/2009
  •  List Price: $59.95 (UK Sterling Price: £34.95)
  •  Media Type: Hardcover
  •  Available as Ebook
  •  This book is an expansion of "Emotion and Conflict: Why It Is Important to Understand How Emotions Affect Conflict and How Conflict Affects Emotions" in: Morton Deutsch, Peter T. Coleman, and Eric C. Marcus (Eds.), The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice. (2nd ed.), Chapter Twelve, pp. 268-293, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

Making Enemies: Humiliation and International Conflict
Westport, CT, London: Praeger Security International, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006

  •  Foreword by Morton Deutsch
  •  Available from the publisher in the US, or from the publisher in the UK
  •  Available from Amazon
  •  Book Code: C9109
  •  ISBN: 0-275-99109-1
  •  Praeger Security International General Interest
  •  Publication Date: 7/30/2006
  •  List Price: $49.95 (UK Sterling Price: £28.99)
  •  Media Type: Hardcover
  •  Available as Ebook
  •  This book is an adaptation from an earlier manuscript (2003): Humiliation - A New Basis for Understanding, Preventing, and Defusing Conflict and Violence in the World and Our Lives.

 

The Psychology of Humiliation: Somalia, Rwanda / Burundi, and Hitler's Germany
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, Part One of Doctoral Dissertation in Psychology (Part Two: 12 articles), submitted 31st October 2000, ISBN 82-569-1817-9.
•  Evelin Lindner would like to express her profound gratitude to her doctoral advisers Lee D. Ross (Stanford University), Reidar Ommundsen, and Jan Smedslund, as well as to Hilde Nafstad, Berit Ås, Karsten Hundeide, and Stephen on Tetzchner as members of the defense committee for May 25, 2001, and Astri Heen Wold for opening the initial door in 1996 as head of the Department of Psychology of the University of Oslo, Norway. Evelin also sends her deep-felt thanks to the esteemed advisers you see the Acknowledgments.
•  Please be aware that this part of the dissertation thesis is designed in a way that it puts the reader into the shoes of the author, inviting the reader to participate in the author's difficult and often confusing journey to Somalia and Rwanda.
•  Read first a short Explanatory Note.
•  Disputas for dr. psychol.-graden over avhandlingen "The Psychology of Humiliation. Somalia, Rwanda / Burundi, and Hitler's Germany". Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo / University of Oslo, Psykologisk institutt / Department of Psychology, Prøveforelesning for dr. psychol.-graden / Public Defense for Dr. psychol. degree, 25. mai 2001.
•  Peace and the Dynamics of Humiliation: What Can Be Done? Prøveforelesning for dr. psychol.-graden (selvvalgt emne) / Trial lecture for Dr. psychol. degree, 25. mai 2001. In this lecture the doctoral candidate presented the results of her research on humiliation that formed the basis for her doctoral dissertation. The four-year research project (1997-2001) was designed by the author in 1996 to explore the role of humiliation. The project was being conducted at the University of Oslo (1997-2001) and was entitled The Feeling of Being Humiliated: A Central Theme in Armed Conflicts. A Study of the Role of Humiliation in Somalia, and Rwanda/Burundi, Between the Warring Parties, and in Relation to Third Intervening Parties. 216 qualitative interviews have been carried out by the researcher, addressing Somalia, Rwanda and Burundi and their history of genocidal killings. From 1998 to 1999 the interviews were carried out in Africa (in Hargeisa, capital of Somaliland, in Kigali and other places in Rwanda, in Bujumbura, capital of Burundi, in Nairobi in Kenya, and in Cairo in Egypt), and from 1997 to 2001 also in Europe (in Norway, Germany, Switzerland, France, and in Belgium). The interviews were often part of a network of relationships that included the researcher and the interlocutors, and in many cases interviews went over several sittings. Trust was built and authentic encounters were sought, inscribed in non-humiliating relationships that safeguarded everybody's dignity. Interlocutors were invited to become 'co-researchers' in a reflective dialogue with the researcher, involving not only the interviewee and the researcher but also various scholars - through their ideas that were introduced.
•  Conceptions of Self and Gender in Collectivistic and Individualistic Societies, Prøveforelesning for dr. psychol.-graden / Trial lecture for Dr. psychol. degree, 25. mai 2001. In this lecture the doctoral candidate introduced some of her reflections that she developed during her work as a clinical psychologist in a collectivistic society. She worked as a psychological counsellor in Cairo, Egypt, from 1984-1991 (during the first three years at the American University in Cairo, during the last four years she had her own private practice in Cairo).
•  See here an Overview over the Interviews carried out for the doctoral research project.
•  See also: Interview Material Collected in Connection with the Research Project 'The Feeling of Humiliation' from 1997 to 2001, Comprising 100 Hours of Interviews on Audio Tape, 10 Hours of Digital Video Film, and Extensive Notes Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, unpublished raw data. Oslo: University of Oslo, unpublished raw data.
•  The Dr. psychol. was awarded to Lindner on 26th May 2001, read Summary for Defense of Doctorate, and Disputasoppslag, and pictures.
•  Read furthermore a Description of the Doctoral Dissertation for Publishers.
•  Read here a Summary of both Dissertations (Medicine and Psychology)
•  Read a central part of the Discussion in the doctoral dissertation: "The Pie, the Security Dilemma, the Time Horizon, and Humiliation as the Most Significant Creator of Rifts within Social Relationships," pp. 336–440.
•  Read also about the "Historical Background: Rwanda / Burundi," pp. 71-102.
•  The film Somalia - A Case-Study: Humiliation and Coping in War (see also a MP4 version on YouTube, earlier title: Humiliation, Genocide, Dictatorship, and the International Community: Somalia As a Case Study) is a compilation of short clips from Somaliland, cut from altogether ca. 10 hours of video material and 100 hours of audio material that Evelin Lindner collected in Somaliland in 1998 (the film was produced in 2000) and Rwanda/Burundi (1999) for her doctoral thesis. I would like to thank Lasse Moer for his work in creating this film. This film aims at giving an impression of Evelin Lindner's field work in Somaliland with a selection of local views and descriptions of occurrences of humiliation and resilience to humiliation. For resilience to humiliation, see particularly the stories of the SORRA group, whose members spent almost a decade in solitary confinement as punishment for wanting to help the hospital in Hargeisa (sharing the fate of many intellectuals around the world who are the first victims of dicators), and the experience of former first lady Edna Adan, who is now a Member of the Global Advisory Board of the Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies network that grew out of Lindner's doctoral research. Also Hassan Keynan is a Member of the HumanDHS Global Advisory Board.
•  In 2015, the 25th Annual Conference of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies was conducted in Kigali, Rwanda, from 2nd - 5th June. Please see the report. Rwandan readers remarked how important the message of this dissertation is that genocide humiliates both victims and perpetrators. Another point was that the genocide in 1994 was perpetrated against the Tutsi (rather than simply calling it genocide, for instance).

Lebensqualität im ägyptisch-deutschen Vergleich: Eine Interkulturelle Untersuchung an drei Berufsgruppen (Ärzte, Journalisten, Künstler)
Hamburg: University of Hamburg, Department of Psychological Medicine, Doctoral Dissertation in Medicine, 1993, fulltext available at the Campus-Katalog Hamburg as mikrofiche and hardcover (search for Evelin Lindner).
•  Quality of Life: A German-Egyptian Comparative Study [Lebensqualität Im Ägyptisch-Deutschen Vergleich. Eine Interkulturelle Untersuchung an Drei Berufsgruppen (Ärzte, Journalisten, Künstler)]
Hamburg: University of Hamburg, Department of Psychological Medicine, English Summary of Doctoral Dissertation in Medicine, 1993.
•  also What Is a Good Life - Comparison Between Egypt and Germany.
Oslo: University of Oslo, manuscript presented at the Middle East Virtual Community (MEViC), first MEViC online Internet conference, 2000, on the basis of Doctoral Dissertation in Medicine (1993).
•  For about fifteen years an ever-increasing number of studies about quality of life has been produced in medical contexts. In most cases, patients of Western cultures are asked how they define quality of life for themselves. Two levels of target groups are usually not incorporated: firstly exclusively the patients' definition of quality of life is examined, not the doctors', and secondly usually only Western cultures are considered and non-Western cultures neglected. The here described study starts at exactly these points. 100 German and 50 Egyptian physicians were asked how they define quality of life for themselves and which aspects of life and health are important to them. They were asked also how they think their patients define quality of life. As points of reference journalists and artists were interviewed - 65 journalists and 45 artists on the German side and 10 journalists and 10 artists on the Egyptian side. The differences discovered can be summarized as follows:
1. The German as well as the Egyptian physicians consider themselves as being rather "responsible", whereas they judge their patients as being more "superficial".
2. In Egypt a combination of religion and the desire for modern technology is connected with the term quality of life, whereas in Germany social peace and a critical attitude towards modern technology are prominent.
•  See also On Globalisation and Quality of Life.

•  Background Reflections
•  Video-Taped Lectures
•  Books (chronologically, newest publications first)
•  Articles & Book Chapters (chronologically, newest publications first)
•  All publications, lectures, and media appearances are listed in the The Norwegian Research Information System CRIStin (please search for "etternavn" Lindner and "fornavn" Evelin)

•  All publications, lectures, and media appearances are also listed in Evelin Lindner's publications list)

A published personal list of interesting web news collected on delicious.com from 2012 until delicious.com closed down in 2017
• From 2017, you see Evelin's personal list of interesting web links on Twitter:


Background Reflections

Please see background reflections by Lindner, 2004, as
•  short summary, and
•  a longer paper (not to be cited without author's authorization).
•  Developed from Humiliation in a Globalizing World: Does Humiliation Become the Most Disruptive Force?, paper shared at the 2004 Workshop on Humiliation and Violent Conflict, Columbia University, New York City, November 18 - 19, 2004. This paper highlights how globalization is interlinked with new and unprecedented psychological dynamics that call for novel solutions at all levels - macro, meso and micro levels, and in all fields of public policy.
•  This paper's SSRN ID is 668742, http://ssrn.com/abstract=668742.
•  Appreciative Nurturing (AN), a text in the process of being written collectively.
This is a text is not finished. If you wish to contribute, please let us know!

A global life design: Reflections and a chronological description
• See pictures at www.humiliationstudies.org/whoweare/evelin/pictures.php
• See videos at www.humiliationstudies.org/whoweare/evelin/videos.php#lindner
• See lectures, talks, and interviews at www.humiliationstudies.org/whoweare/evelin021.php
• See publications at www.humiliationstudies.org/whoweare/evelin02.php
• 1954 born into a displaced family from Central Europe (Silesia)
• 1974 beginning to live and work globally, on all continents
History of the Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies network
Schedule in more detail

 

Video-Taped Lectures and Messages


Dignity or Humiliation: The World at a Crossroad
(2 hours)
Lecture at the Department of Psychology/Psykologisk institutt (Harald Schjelderups hus, Forskningsveien 3, Auditorium 1, as part of PSYC3203 - Anvendt sosialpsykologi), given on 12th January 2011, and 14th January, 2009. See also the video site of the Faculty of Social Science at the University of Oslo.
Please see a background paper for this lecture in the first issue of the Journal of HumanDignity and Humiliation Studies, March 2007. For an earlier version for the introductory paper, see here or http://ssrn.com/abstract=668742 (this paper's SSRN ID is 668742).
For more recent papers see, among others, "The Need for a New World," and "What the World’s Cultures Can Contribute to Creating a Sustainable Future for Humankind." See pictures and video.

Short welcoming video clip (one minute) and see more videos

 

Articles & Book Chapters

Toward a Globally Informed Psychology of Humiliation: Comment on McCauley (2017)
co-authored with Linda Hartling, in American Psychologist, 72 (7), 705–06. doi: 10.1037/amp0000188.
See Clark McCauley's article.

Dignity in Times of Crises: Communicating the Need for Global Social Climate Change
co-authored with Linda Hartling, in Routledge Media and Humanitarian Action Handbook, edited by Purnaka L. de Silva and Robin Andersen. Chapter 4. Abingdon: Routledge, 2018. ISBN Hardback 9781138688575.
Preface by Sir Peter Sutherland, UN Special Representative of the Secretary-General on International Migration and Development.
• Abstract: For all who work at the forefront and in the wake of global emergencies, this chapter will explore the urgent need for a new social climate to address these crises. It will define and describe humiliation as a dynamic that intensifies crises and disasters. It offers a discussion in support of media and human rights professionals, UN and government staff, academics, policymakers and practitioners, as well as victims and ordinary citizens who experience and witness humiliation and its consequences. Finally, it will discuss specific ways to begin dismantling the dynamics of humiliation by cultivating a new social climate—a climate of relationships strengthened by equal dignity.
• Table of Contents
Preface by Sir Peter Sutherland, UN Special Representative of the Secretary-General on International Migration and Development
Introduction
The Power of Media in Times of Humanitarian Crisis: Global Challenges, Constraints and Consequences - Robin Andersen and Purnaka L. de Silva
Section 1: Theories and Practice of Media and Their Impact on Humanitarian Action
1) Media, Politics, Compassion and Citizenship in the Post-Humanitarian Debate: Visual Storytelling and the Humanitarian Imaginary - Robin Andersen
2) Communicating for Impact, The Voice of the Victims: The Role of Media Design in Humanitarian and Human Rights Organizations - Tamara Alrifai
3) The Aljazeera Effect: News Media Coverage of Global Humanitarian Emergencies - Yehia Ghanem
4) Dignity in Times of Crises: Communicating the Need for Global Social Climate Change - Evelin Gerda Lindner and Linda Hartling
5) When Media is Used to Incite Violence: The United Nations, Genocide and Atrocity Crimes - Adama Dieng and Simona Cruciani
Section 2: Documentary, News, Human Traffickers and the Rescue Narratives of Global Migrations: Humanitarianism and Human Rights in an Age of Crisis
6) Frontline Doctors: Winter Migrant Crisis, BBC 1 - Alexander Van Tulleken
7) A Humanitarian Battlefield: Redefining Border Control as Saving Victims - Pierluigi Musarò
8) From Pity to Control: Regulated Humanitarianism in German Media Coverage of Refugees and Asylum - Elke Grittman
9) Regional Implications of Human Trafficking and Forced Migration: Looking for Solutions in Libya - Purnaka L. de Silva
10) The Drowning of SPHERE in the Mediterranean: What Has Happened to Humanitarian Standards in Fortress Europe? - Pamela DeLargy
Section 3: Global Humanitarian Information Policy: Financing, Early Warning and Crisis Response
11) Forecast-based Financing, Early Warning and Early Action: A Cutting Edge Strategy for the International Humanitarian Community? - Alexandra Rüth, Laura Fontaine, Erin Coughlan de Perez, Konstanze Kampfer, Kevin Wyjad, Mathieu Destrooper, Irene Amuron, Richard Choularton, Meinrad Bürer and Rebecca Miller
12) Policy for Media and Communication in Humanitarian Action and Long-term Development Cooperation: Some Norwegian Experiences and Perspectives - Anne Skjelmerud and Ivar Evensmo
13) The Correlation of Humanitarian Aid, North-South Development Cooperation and the Media: Facts and Fiction - Ulrich Nitschke and Heike Wülfing
14) Global Emergency Preparedness and Multilateral Action in an Information Age - Henia Dakkak
Section 4: Famine, Violence and Compassion: The Politics of News, Perception, Aid and Security
15) Reporting Humanitarian Narratives: Are We Missing Out on the Politics? - Suzanne Franks
16) Front Pages and Frontlines: How the News Cycle Impacted Humanitarian Assistance in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of Congo - Heather Bourbeau
17) Compassion as a News Value: Comparing French and UK Humanitarian Coverage of the War in Gaza 2014 - Emma Heywood
18) News Frames and Global Terrorism Coverage in the UK and Norway: Context and Consequences for Humanitarian Issues - Maria Konow Lund and Eva-Karin Olsson
19) The Central American Refugee Crisis, Securitization, and the Media - Adrian Bergmann
Section 5: Voices at the Table, on the Internet and Over the Airwaves: Expanding the Global Dialogue on Science, Religion, Civil Society and Human Rights
20) Now You See Me, Now You Don’t: Faith-based NGOs and Humanitarian Work – A Story from the World Humanitarian Summit - Azza Karam
21) The Role of Media in Public Advocacy and Countering Violent Extremism - Nadia Sraieb-Koepp
22) Ebola and AIDS: Harnessing Science and Human Nature to Combat Two Modern Plagues - Pat Fast
23) Plural + Media Literacy, and Voices of the Young: Platforms for Including Youth-Produced Media in Humanitarian Dialogue - Jordi Torrent
24) The Voice of the People in an Age of Environmental Crisis: Pope Francis, the Earth Community, Human Rights, and Independent Media - Robin Andersen and DeeDee Halleck
Section 6: Communication, Humanitarianism and Crisis: Case Studies from the Global Community
25) Horn of Africa: The Politics of Famine, Media Activism and Donor Aid - Aregawi Berhe
26) Disaster Management in The Philippines: Media, Unions and Humanitarian Action- Kim Scipes
27) Humanitarian Response and Media in the Arab Gulf Countries- Fadwa Ahmed Obaid
28) Quo Vadis? Ethnic and Cultural Genocide: Chaldean and Assyrian Christians and Yazidis in Northern Iraq and Syria - Purnaka L. de Silva
29) Child Protection and UNICEF’s Communication and Media Strategy: A Conflict-related Study from Mindanao, The Philippines - Priti Vaishnav
30) Environmental Degradation, Poverty and Corruption: Humanitarian Action and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the Context of Media Influences and Power Dynamics in Latin America - Rudelmar Bueno de Faria
Section 7: Legacy Media from Fiction to Documentary: Representations of Crisis, Conflict, Humanitarian Assistance and Peacekeeping
31) HBO’s Treme and the Evolving Story of Hurricane Katrina: From Mythic News to Fictional Drama - Robin Andersen
32) "Shine a Little Light:" Celebrities, Humanitarian Documentary, and Half the Sky - Heather McIntosh
33) "The Record of a Total Power Loss": First Five Days at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant - Hajime Ozaki
34) Media Interventions as Humanitarian Action - Shawn Powers
35) Last Station Before Hell: United Nations Peacekeepers - Pierre-Olivier François
Section 8: The Contradictions of Social Media and New Technologies of Communication: Information, Fake News, Activism and Witness
36) Key Communicators’ Perspectives on the Use of Social Media in Risks and Crises - Harald Hornmoen, Klas Backholm, Elsebeth Frey, Rune Ottosen, Gudrun Reimerth, FH Joanneum, Steen Steensen
37) Global Activism on Facebook: A Discursive Analysis of "Bring Back Our Girls" Campaign - Dorothy Njoroge
38) "Take my Picture": The Media Assemblage of Lone-Wolf Terror Events, Mobile Communication, and the News - Kenzie Burchell
39) Keeping Reporters Safe: The Ethics of Drone Journalism in a Humanitarian Crisis - Turo Uskali and Epp Lauk
40) Weaponizing Social Media: "The Alt-Right," the Election of Donald J. Trump and the Rise of Ethno-Nationalism in the United States - Robin Andersen
Section 9: Media Industry and Government Influences on Policy and Humanitarian Affairs: The Propaganda of Warmaking
41) The Philanthrocapitalist and the Humanitarian Agenda: Motivations, Measurements and Media Power - Garrett Broad
42) The Impossibility of Humanitarian War: Libya and Beyond - Robin Andersen
43) The CNN Effect and Humanitarian Crisis - Piers Robinson
Conclusion
Assessing the Media and Humanitarian Landscape: Amidst Complexities, Global Peace and Prosperity Require New Directions and New Ethics and Expressions of Solidarity - Robin Andersen

Invitation to a Future that Dignifies People and the Planet: New Definitions of Heroism, by Evelin Lindner, on Behalf of Humankind
Mussoorie, India, 8th September 2017.
• Dearest Dignity Hero! Please know that your ability to think and reflect, and your ability to do this lovingly, is worth more than all gold and all diamonds of this world. Your wisdom and innovative creativity, your talent to lovingly envision different futures, all this is of unparalleled value. Your ability to see nuances, to turn around and look at all situations from many perspectives, is brilliant. Your willingness to extend your loving reflectiveness to all beings of this world is priceless. Your capability to seed our world with seedlings of loving care is wonderful. You are precisely the kind of thinker, the kind of responsible intellectual, the caring nurturer and gardener of humanity that we are in dire need of in these times of global challenges and crises! ... [read more]

Løpeseddel om ydmykelse
The Grandmothers for Peace in Oslo, with Trine Eklund as one of them, distribute flyers in front of the Norwegian Parliament every Wednesday. They prepared a flyer on Evelin Lindner's work and distributed it on 5th April 2017.

Can Systemic Humiliation Be Transformed Into Systemic Dignity?
By Linda M. Hartling and Evelin G. Lindner
In Power, Humiliation, and Violence: Understanding Identity-Based Conflicts, edited by Daniel Rothbart. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, forthcoming.

Cities at Risk – From Humiliation to Dignity: A Journey from Sarajevo to Dubrovnik, or the Case of Southeast Europe
Paper written in Sarajevo in August 2016, and in Dubrovnik in September 2016, for the 27th Annual Conference of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies 'Cities at Risk - From Humiliation to Dignity', in Dubrovnik, Croatia, 19th – 23rd September 2016, and for the Journal of Urban Culture Research, to be published in 2017. See the abstract that was prepared in 2015, the video of Evelin Lindner's keynote address at the conference in Dubrovnik on 22nd September 2016, and the Powerpoint presentation of 26th September 2016.
• Abstract: Warnings are out that in the next twenty years population growth and fast-paced urbanization will lead to widespread social disconnection. Unless there is dramatic change in how economies are run, demand for natural resources will increase and lead to rising prices as a result of growing competition for access to natural resources. Among the “winners” will be the conflict entrepreneurs, the gang leaders, the under-bosses, who will recruit their foot soldiers among disaffected young men. In the worst case, the world, including its cities, could turn into many small-scale off-limits war zones and ecocide will combine with sociocide.
An African adage says that “it needs a village to raise a child.” Unless there is dramatic change, the number of disaffected children and youth in the global village will rise. They will be vulnerable to following humiliation-entrepreneurs who will further weaken and ravage this village. The majority of people will be caught in between.
How can a future of systemic humiliation be avoided? How can a future of dignity be created instead? This article calls for the “global street” to rise up and humanize globalization. The global street is powerful. It can co-create a world of equal dignity for all – short egalization – and achieve globegalization, instead of globalization void of dignity.
Many past “-isms” have brought tremendous suffering to the world. All too often they descended into violent cycles of humiliation rather than enlightenment. What would be a future-orientated “-ism”? What about dignity + ism, or dignism? This is how dignism could be defined, as describing a world
– where every newborn finds space and is nurtured to unfold their highest and best qualities, embedded in a social context of loving appreciation and connection,
– where the carrying capacity of the planet guides the ways in which everybody’s basic needs are met,
– where we are united in respecting human dignity and celebrating diversity, where we prevent unity from being perverted into oppressive uniformity, and keep diversity from sliding into hostile divisions.

The Journey of Humiliation and Dignity, and the Significance of the Year 1757
Paper began in New York City on November 22, 2015, continued in 2016 and 2017.
• Summary: In the English language, the concept of humiliation traversed a fascinating journey throughout the past centuries. It is a captivating story of ‘historical linguistics’, or philology. Greek philologos means ‘fond of’(phil-) ‘words and speech’ (logos). Philology means being fond of studying literature and the historical growth and adaptation of languages.
The year 1757 is of particular significance for the journey of humiliation. This year represents an important historical linguistic marker, a marker that signals a momentous change in the Zeitgeist first in the European cultural realm, and later globally. This marker is connected with the emergence of a form of imagining a person that might have existed much earlier in history, but had since disappeared, a form that ultimately lead up to the ideal of equality in dignity for each individual.
The year 1757 stands for the beginning of a ‘U-turn’ that first led away from collectivist honour toward the honour of a single individual, and from there it culminated in the ideal of equal dignity for all, as individuals in solidarity – with the term decorum forming the bridge from honour to dignity. Ultimately, this development led up to these sentences in the first paragraph of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted on 10th December 1948: ‘All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood’.
In former times such utterances were unconceivable (and still are in certain world regions also today). A very different version of was regarded as divinely ordained or nature-given: ‘All human beings are born unequal in dignity and rights. Some are endowed with more reason and conscience and should act towards inferiors in a spirit of superiority’. Or: ‘All human beings are born unequal in worthiness and rights – people are born into their rank and they are meant to stay there, only some might move up or down due to their own doing or undoing – and, as an unavoidable consequence, there will always be some who are more free than others, there will always be elites who preside over their subordinate collectives’.
This paper embeds the journey of humiliation and dignity into the larger context of globalisation and why the phenomenon of humiliation becomes more salient nowadays. The paper traces in what ways human rights ideals create an expectation gap that may lead to violent cycles of humiliation. The paper suggests dignism and egalisation as visions for the future.
See as background material: Miller, William Ian (1993). Humiliation and Other Essays on Honor, Social Discomfort, and Violence. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, with pages 175-177 on the philology of humiliation.

Hvor mye av verdens konflikter kan forklares med ydmykelse? I 40 år har psykolog Evelin Lindner forsket for å finne svaret
Av Cathrine Hellesøy Harrisson, Aftenposten A-Magasinet, 9. desember 2016, t, pp. 59 - 63.
•  Hvor mange av verdens konflikter kan forklares med ydmykelse? Evelin Lindner mener alt fra familiefeider til folkemord har én ting til felles. I bunn ligger ofte den samme utløseren.

Reflection on Journey to Earthland: The Great Transition to Planetary Civilization
Great Transition Initiative (November 2016)
Evelin Lindner on the importance of the affective and institutional dimensions of global citizenship, reflecting on Paul Raskin's book, Journey to Earthland: The Great Transition to Planetary Civilization (Boston: Tellus Institute, 2016).

Auswirkungen von Demütigung auf Menschen und Völker
In Gehirne zwischen Liebe und Krieg: Menschlichkeit im Zeitalter der Neurowissenschaften, edited by Helmut Fink and Rainer Rosenzweig, Kapitel 3, pp. 41–73, 2016. Münster: mentis. ISBN 978-3-95743-069-4 (Print, 229 pages).
Contents:
• Hirnareale der Liebe, Andreas Bartels, Seite 7
• Das Menschenbild der Neurowissenschaften und die Ethik "Des Kaisers neue Kleider"? Dieter Birnbacher, Seite 25
• Auswirkungen von Demütigung auf Menschen und Völker, Evelin Lindner, Seite 41
• Nächstenliebe und Fernstenhass Lässt sich der moralische Dualismus überwinden? Michael Schmidt-Salomon, Seite 75
• Kranke Seele – Krankes Gehirn? Neurobiologische Grundlagen psychischer Erkrankungen und ihrer Therapie, Gerhard Roth, Seite 93
• Darwins dunkles Erbe Gewaltsame Zwischengruppenkonflikte in der menschlichen Evolution, Hannes Rusch, Seite117
• "Denk mal" in Trümmern Gewalt als Zusammenbruch reflexiver Fähigkeiten, Svenja Taubner, Seite 141
• Ein guter Freund schützt vor Feinden Die hormonellen und kognitiven Grundlagen von Freundschaften bei Schimpansen und deren Auswirkung auf aggressive Kontakte mit Nachbargruppen, Roman M. Wittig, Seite 157
• Komm mir nicht zu nah Neurowissenschaftliche Befunde zum personalen Raum, Anne Schienle, Seite 175
Siehe auch:
Von Demütigung zu Terror und Krieg: Erniedrigung kann zu Gewalt führen, kann sie auch zu Liebe führen? 11. Oktober 2015,
2015 Symposium "Gehirne zwischen Liebe und Krieg - Menschlichkeit in Zeiten der Neurowissenschaften", gemeinnützige Turm der Sinne / Tower of the Senses GmbH, Nürnberg, Germany. Siehe auch turmdersinne's blog, Evelin's bio, und Tanja Toplak-Páll mit Evelin Lindner, Für einen Weg ohne Rache und Gewalt, Interview in Nürnberger Nachrichten, 24. September 2015.
• Zusammenfassung: Psychischer Schmerz wird im Gehirn wie physischer Schmerz verarbeitet und das Erleben anderer kann wie eigenes Erleben erfahren werden kann. Wenn andere Menschen Demütigung, Erniedrigung und Kränkung erleiden, auch wenn es geographisch weit entfernt ist, kann es wie eigene Verletzung gefühlt werden. Seit Medien und Internet das Leiden anderer immer näher bringen, wird dieses Phänomen verstärkt. Gefühle von Demütigung können zu Apathie und Depression, aber auch zu Hilfsbereitschaft und Gewaltbereitschaft führen. Nicht nur Deutschlands Geschichte, dass mit Hilfe von kollektiven Demütigungsnarrativen die Enttäuschungen Einzelner so gebündelt werden kann, dass ganze Völker in den Krieg und das Begehen von Völkermord und Terror geführt werden können. Auch die Einrichtung systemischer Demütigung kann als "Rettung" empfunden In diesem Kontext kann die Antwort mit systemischer Demütigung als "Rettung" empfunden werden - Apartheid, wie sie von einem Professor der Psychologie konzipiert wurde, ist ein Beispiel. Gefühle der Demütigung entstehen unter anderem, wenn Versprechen von Respekt nicht eingehalten werden. Menschenrechtsideale der gleichen Menschenwürde für alle, zum Beispiel, repräsentieren ein solches Versprechen, und leere Menschenrechtsrhetorik und doppelte Standards wirken doppelt kränkend. Wenn die daraus entstehenden Reaktionen fehlinterpretiert werden und zu kontraproduktiven Gegenmitteln gegriffen wird, kann es zu unnötigen Kreisläufen der gegenseitigen Demütigung führen. Bewusstseinsbildung im Sinne eines Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Paulo Freire oder Nelson Mandela kann helfen, von einer Kultur des Krieges, in der Demütigung anderer als Lösung gesehen wird, zu einer Kultur der globalen Einigkeit zu gelangen, in der kulturelle und ökologische Vielfalt im Kontext gleicher Menschenwürde für alle gedeihen kann. Wissenschaftler, die die Einsicht und Demut besitzen, sich ihrer gesellschaftlichen Abhängigkeit und Verantwortung bewusst zu sein, können dabei helfen.

Healing Humiliation: From Reaction to Creative Action
By Linda M. Hartling and Evelin G. Lindner
In Journal of Counseling and Development (JCD), 94, Special Section focussing on Relational Cultural Theory (4), pp. 383-390, 2016, doi: 10.1002/j.556-6676.2014.00000.x.
•  Abstract, 2016: In the midst of global crises, feelings of humiliation are intensified (Lindner, 2008; Moïsi, 2009). Counselors are often on the front lines of suffering during turbulent times. This article explores how the dynamics of humiliation are coming to the forefront of concern around the globe. Applying a relational framework, the authors examine the impact of humiliation, offering a case example that illustrates how counselors can lead their clients out of destructive reactions into creative action.
•  Abstract, first draft 2012: In the midst of a confluence of global crises, feelings of humiliation are intensified. Local and global crises force individuals, communities, and nations to struggle with demoralizing disconnections and deprivations. Counselors and other clinicians are the social-psychological paramedics and healers on the front lines of suffering during these turbulent times. This paper explores how the dynamics of humiliation are coming to the forefront of concern at home and around the world. It will offer an analysis that places humiliation within a relational framework, identifying three categories of humiliation: (1) internal experience, (2) external interactions, and (3) systemic social conditions. It will examine the impact of humiliation using a case example that illustrates how counselors can lead clients out of destructive reactions into creative action.

Menschlichkeit und Mediation: Ein Leben für Würde und gegen Demütigung
Ein Interview mit Claudia Lutschewitz, in Mediator 01/2016, Seiten 4-9. It was a great privilege that Claudia Lutschewitz and her husband Andreas Lucewicz came to Hameln to conduct the interview on 12th January 2016. See the little video that we created at the end of our conversation.

The Dangerous “Glory” of Killing: La Donna del Lago and Die Fledermaus
Paper written in New York City in December 2015.
• Summary: This is the story of two operas that display the glory of honor and the destructiveness of honor – destructiveness to others, but also to oneself. La Donna del Lago starts with hailing the glory hunters can attain by killing wild beasts, and it continues with an unrelenting invocation of the glory that warriors can reap from crushing the enemy. In the operetta Die Fledermaus, we meet Prince Orlofsky, an aristocrat who is bored, not least since his raison-d’être, namely, to be a warrior who defends his royal master, is unfulfilled. He has accumulated riches and would need war to regain his true knightly identity. Being in limbo, he cynically takes to humiliating his fellow human beings by advertising ridiculous leisure activities as desirable tokens of higher class, and he uses humiliation among underlings as his entertainment. Soon after this opera was created, World War I started, with a sigh of relief among men of honor: finally, glorious action had found a new arena! The subsequent escalation toward the threat of global nuclear annihilation made unmistakably visible the suicidal character of this kind of male honor: it leads to the dance on the Titanic.

Puccini’s Tosca, and the Journey toward Respect for Equal Dignity for All
Paper written in New York City on November 26, 2015.
• Summary: This is a story of an opera and how it applies to the need to build a world worth living in, for our children and all beings, and the obstacles on the path to get there. Modern-day topics such as terrorism and gender relations are part of this quest. This text starts with a brief description of the opera, and then addresses its relevance for the transition toward a world that manifests the ideals of the French Revolution of liberté, égalité, and fraternité, a motto that is also at the core of modern-day human rights ideals: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood (and sisterhood).”

Alban Berg’s Lulu, and the Journey from Humiliation to Dignity, from the “Machine Principle” to the “Life Principle”
Paper written in New York City on November 22, 2015.
• Summary: This is a story of an opera and how it applies to deep questions about the nature of reality, of what is and what ought to be. These questions pertain also to modern-day topics ranging as far as terrorism, gender relations, or music theory. This text starts with a brief description of the opera, and then addresses its relevance to concepts of masculinity, love, and music.

Tannhäuser, Terrorism, Revolution, and Economism
Paper written in New York City on 1st October 2015.
• Summary: This is a story of an opera and how it applies to modern-day topics such as terrorism and economic arrangements. It starts with a brief description of the opera, then addresses how it may apply to terrorism, and it ends with a very personal and dramatic story of what happened to the author in the last break of the opera.

Für einen Weg ohne Rache und Gewalt
Tanja Toplak-Páll mit Evelin Lindner, Interview in Nürnberger Nachrichten, 24. September 2015.

Reflections on the 25th Dignity Conference in Rwanda in 2015
This report of the 25th Dignity Conference was written by Evelin Lindner in June and Linda Hartling was able to it cut down from 60 confidential pages to 20 public non-confidential pages. We have received clearance of the conference hosts, the Rwandan Commission of Reconciliation (NURC) and Emmanuel Ndahihama, to publish the final version on our website. We have reason to believe that also the President of Rwanda will read it most attentively.

Evelin Lindner é indicadaao Prêmio Nobel da Paz 2015
by Rosy Rodriguez.

A Dignity Economy
Draft prepared for Monika Kostera, Professor, Jagiellonian University, Poland Michael Pirson, Associate Professor, Fordham University, USA, and their Humanism in Business Series, 2015.

A Dignity Economy
Draft for “People in Conservation,” the newsletter of Kalpavriksh, 2015

Nobel Peace Prize Nomination 2015: Reflections by Evelin Lindner
April 2015
We are celebrating all of the remarkable individuals and groups who have been nominated for the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize in February 2015. We are especially delighted that included on this list, as representative of our Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies network, is Evelin Lindner, our Founding President. Her nomination is an affirmation of her forty years of service and action to bring peace and dignity into the lives of all people. You can see her nomination on nobelwill.org/Lindner_nomination.pdf or here.
Please see more here.

Dignity, Humiliation, and Food: The Way We Eat As Part of a Large-Scale Dignity Revolution
Chapter prepared for Emanuela Del Re, as contribution to her publication Food for Dignity, April 2015.

Sustainable Peace Survey
New York: Columbia University, Teachers College, Advanced Consortium on Cooperation, Conflict, and Complexity (AC4), April 6, 2015.

Appreciative Nurturing (AN) 2006 -January 2015
This text is in the process of being written collectively. It was begun in December 2006 and will always evolve. If you wish to contribute, please let us know!

A Global Dignilogue (Dignity + Dialogue) with Evelin Lindner and Linda Hartling (Pdf | Video)
New York City: A dignilogue (dignity + dialogue) shared on December 4 at the 2014 Workshop on Transforming Humiliation and Violent Conflict, Columbia University, Morton Deutsch International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution (MD-ICCCR) as part of the Advanced Consortium on Cooperation, Conflict, and Complexity (AC4), December 4-5, 2014.

The Terrorist
Chapter for the forthcoming book Understanding the Self of Suicidal Behaviour Among Ethnic Minorities – Who Is Killing Whom? edited by Latha Nrugham. See the initial draft for this chapter, written in September 2014.

The Need to Avoid Humiliation and Create Equality of Dignity
Contribution for Social Alternatives edited by Ralph Summy, written in 2014.

The Need for a New World
In: About Peace and Peacemaking, 2014, 2nd edition, edited by María Cristina Azcona, Elgin, IL: Cook Communication, chapter V, pp. 175-240, ISBN-10: 1304899349, ISBN-13: 978-1304899347.
This chapter is based on a paper shared at the 2008 Workshop on Humiliation and Violent Conflict, Columbia University, New York City, December 11-12, 2008.
• Abstract from 2008: We live in times of crisis. This paper is a conceptual paper, aiming at exposing the core patterns that can help us build a new world. It views the required changes against the backdrop of a larger geo-historical context.
This paper points out that when old paradigms fall, space opens for a new future. This space has to be filled constructively. “In times of change, the learners inherit the world, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists” (a saying attributed to Eric Hoffer).
After the demise of the Soviet Block and oppressive communism, we now witness the demise of the Western approach of maximizing victory and profit. Global interdependence represents the ultimate deterrent for power-over strategies – nobody can win durable “victories” over others in an interdependent world, everybody is vulnerable. Global interdependence also represents the ultimate deterrent to the idea that in a world that depends on a healthy ecological homeostasis, the maximization of single elements (for example, profit), is feasible. In this situation, only profound transformation will help, tinkering with symptoms is insufficient. Systemic change is overdue, locally, and, particularly, globally.
And this change must not be left to a few elites, but needs to be driven by as many of the world’s citizens as possible. This paper aims at contributing to creating a new vision for the future, together with nurturing global leaders who can carry it forward, and not just a few leaders, but many. It aims at outlining what kind of global system we need that would not just address crises in an ad-hoc fashion, but prevent them – at least the human-made ones – from occurring in the future.
This paper posits that we, as humankind, need to transform everything, from the philosophical foundations we stand on, to the core guidelines we employ, the definitions we forge, the institutions we build, and the cultural and social practices we teach our children. What is particularly pressing it the creation of new superordinate global institutions.
The paper is structured along the lines of these changes. As to the philosophical foundations, the nondualistic principle of Unity in Diversity is what this paper advocates. As to core guidelines and definitions, it is suggested that we must learn to focus on interest, not on position, and on output, not on input. As to institutions, and the cultural and social practices we teach our children, giving priority to communal sharing is recommended. Subsidiarity is put forward as suitable guideline for combining communal sharing with elements of market economy into new layers of local and global institutions. To bring about these changes and grasp the opportunities that typically are entailed in crisis, it is suggested that women and men recalibrate their contributions to society.
This paper describes a vision of an alternative future, a vision that aims to motivate us to strive for its realization and overcome the obstacles that wait on this path.

Urban Dignity - Global Dignity: What Is It? How Do we Achieve It? (Part 1 in Volume 8, pp. 8-22)
Urban Dignity - Global Dignity: What Is It? How Do we Achieve It? (Part 2 in Volume 9, pp. 8-34)

Journal of Urban Culture Research, Volume 8 and Volume 9, 2014, Arts and Social Outreach – Designs for Urban Dignity, Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts, published jointly by Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, and Osaka City University, Japan.
ISSN 2228-8279 (Print)
ISSN 2408-1213 (Online)

Please see the original draft here:
Global Dignity: What Is It? How Do We Achieve It?
Written for the Journal of Urban Culture Research, Volume 8 and 9, 2014, Arts and Social Outreach – Designs for Urban Dignity, Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
This paper brings together Evelin Lindner's thoughts about global dignity with the experiences and insights she gathered in Thailand in March and April 2014. It draws together the presentations she gave at the following two conferences:
• 1 Urban Dignity: What Is It? How Do We Achieve It?
Presentation given at the 12th Urban Culture Forum, 'Arts and Social Outreach - Designs for Urban Dignity', organised by The Urban Research Plaza, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, 3rd - 4th March 2014, convened by Kjell Skyllstad. Evelin Lindner gave a brief overview over her work on dignity on 4th March 2014. The video was kindly recorded by Deeyah Khan. Please note that due to technical issues, this presentation could not be given in its full length and that the video is unedited.
A Dual Call for Papers had been issued for The Urban Research Plaza's 12th Urban Culture Forum, and for the Journal of Urban Culture Research. Presentations were invited spanning the wide and diverse field of urban culture. The questions below were offered as evocative guidelines rather than requirements:
'How can we open the world of art for all (children, youth, elderly, disabled, disadvantaged)? How can we promote artistic expressions of minority groups? What are the means of enlarging participation in artistic activities among urban populations? How can art stimulate and promote citizens interaction in urban planning and design? How can art activism confront urban patterns of gender inequality and humiliating practices? How can the artist community contribute to solving urban conflicts and restoring human dignity? What allows traditional cultures and values to survive? How can artists contribute to the preservation of national art treasures? What measures can be taken to promote cultural continuity in urban environments? What is the place of arts education in promoting social and environmental awareness? In short: How can we promote art for social dignity?'
• Abstract: Unity in diversity is at the centre of dignity. It means that people of all classes and colours intermingle in a spirit of mutual care and respect. Traditionally, throughout the past millennia, uniformity in division has been practised almost everywhere on the planet: to strengthen their competitive advantage over enemy out-groups, in-groups maintained a strictly unequal domination of higher beings over lesser beings. Unity in diversity is a more complex concept as it requires the readiness and ability to consider everyone else as equal in dignity, and it calls for the skills to enter into dialogue with equals. As long as such a culture is not yet established, unity in diversity has the potential to trigger uneasiness, including feelings of humiliation, and can lead to attempts to cleanse and exclude diversity so as to return to the more familiar and less complex experience of uniformity in division. Urban contexts are prime experimental laboratories for this transition. For urban dignity to flourish and social and ecological sustainability to emerge, interdisciplinary dialogue is needed to overcome the traditional practise of domination over people and over nature. Urban dignity flourishes when the city is regarded in terms of a family that collaborates in mutual communal sharing and stewardship of their environment, while urban dignity collapses when priority is given to clambering for power and status, be it through overt oppression or cloaked as economic necessity. Artists can play a central role in creating conditions for social interactions of dignity instead of humiliation. Music, for instance, has the power to unite. One example was given by Oslo citizens when they reacted to the 22 July 2011 terror attacks in Norway by gathering in front of the courthouse singing ‘The Rainbow People’.
• 2. Global Dignity
Presentation given at the 23rd Annual Conference of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, 'Returning Dignity', took place at Chiang Mai University, Northern Thailand, 8-12th March 2014, inspired by Kjell Skyllstad and convened by Chayan Vaddhanaphuti, Professor and Founding Director of the Regional Center for Social Science and Sustainable Development (RSCD) and Director of the Center of Ethnic Studies and Development (CESD) at the Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University. Evelin Lindner gave a brief overview over her work on dignity on 12th March 2014. The video was kindly recorded by Donna Fujimoto. Please note that this video is unedited.
See also:
- Introduction by Kjell Skyllstad and Evelin Lindner, and Presentation of Participants
The 23rd Annual Conference of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, 'Returning Dignity', took place in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 8-12th March 2014. On Day One, 8th March 2014, Kjell Skyllstad and Evelin Lindner opened the conference. The video was recorded by a professional team invited by Chiang Mai University.
- At the Learning Center, Interview with Carina zur Strassen and Evelin Lindner
The 23rd Annual Conference of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, 'Returning Dignity', took place in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 8-12th March 2014. On Day Three and Four, on 10th and 11th March 2014, the participants of the conference had the great privilege of being welcomed to Suan Lahu, a Lahu village in Northern Thailand, by Carina zur Strassen. This conversation between Carina zur Strassen and Evelin Lindner was kindly recorded by Donna Fujimotoon 10th March 2014.
- At the Learning Center of the Lahu Village Suan Lahu in Northern Thailand
The 23rd Annual Conference of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, 'Returning Dignity', took place in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 8-12th March 2014. On Day Three and Four, on 10th and 11th March 2014, the participants of the conference had the great privilege of being welcomed to Suan Lahu, a Lahu village in Northern Thailand, by Carina zur Strassen. The video was kindly recorded by Mark Petz on 10th March 2014. It shows Evelin Lindner briefly explaining the work of the Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies network.

Living Globally: Global Citizenship of Dignity and Care as Personal Practice
In: Global Citizen - Challenges and Responsibility in an Interconnected World, edited by Aksel Braanen Sterri, chapter 3, pp. 15-26, Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers, 2014
(A Global Citizen lecture series took place at the University of Oslo during fall 2012)
ISBN Paperback: 9789462099272
ISBN Hardcover: 9789462099289
ISBN E-Book: 9789462099296
See the long version of Lindner's contribution to this anthology.
• Introduction: I admit, I am a pioneer, almost too far ahead of my time—I have not yet met another person who intentionally develops a global life design like me. Yet, I am sure that many more people would derive great joy from trying my path.
Sadly, many stop at 'straw man' arguments. The ecological footprint of global citizenship, for instance, does not have to be large: I move about our planet slowly, since forty years, not just by plane but by foot, bus, ship, and train; I lived in the desert on foot, horse, donkey, and camel; I have even trained to build sailplanes and fly single motor planes. To be sure, one of the tasks of global citizenship is to globalise the insight that the burning of fossil fuel is outdated and irresponsible and has to be replaced by more intelligent solutions—and that burning biofuel from urgently needed food is even worse. There is no need to become a hyperglot like me either; I have successfully communicated by simply being human. And there is no necessary link between global citizenship and bulimic consumerism. On the contrary: global citizenship of care can also help globalise an indigenous gift economy. Refraining from accumulating possessions beyond what one can carry in a bag would be a good start. Last but not least, if we want to become better stewards of our world, we need a new kind of education, one that leads us out of artificial bubbles into real life. I am an avid learner, and the planet is my university—this is why I co-founded the World Dignity University initiative.
Table of Contents:
• Preface
• Introduction
• 1. Global Presence, Global Responsibility and the Global Citizen, by Inga Bostad and Ole Petter Ottersen
• 2. Global Citizenship - Why Do We Need Utopian Visions? by Halvor Moxnes
• 3. Living Globally: Global Citizenship of Care as Personal Practice, by Evelin Lindner
• 4. Global Citizens of the World Unite! by Karen O'Brien
• 5. The Global Citizen and the Immorality of Poverty, by Dan Banik
• 6. Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights - Or Gender Equality? by Johanne Sundby
• 7. Global Citizenship and die Challenge from Cultural Relativism, by Thomas Hylland Eriksen
• 8. The Idea of Global Citizenship in the Age of Ecomodemity, by Nina Witoszek
• 9. Global Citizenship, by Andreas Fattesdal
• 10. Globalism- In Your Own Interest! by Helge Hveem
• 11. The Nation State in the Age of Globalizations - Stone Dead or Rejuvenated? by Knur Kjeldstadli
• 12. Learning and Living Democracy, by Janicke Heldal Stray

Dignity, Peace and Harmony
Chapter invited by Leo Semashko to be published in September-November 2014, celebrating the 10th anniversary of the Global Harmony Association (GHA).

Emotion and Conflict: Why It Is Important to Understand How Emotions Affect Conflict and How Conflict Affects Emotions
In: Morton Deutsch, Peter T. Coleman, and Eric C. Marcus (Eds.), The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice, 3rd Edition, Chapter 12, pp. 283-309, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-118-52686-6, 1272 pages. See the Book Launch Event Page.
See here the long draft for the update of this chapter for the third edition of the handbook in 2014 from the second edition in 2006.
Contents:
Preface xi
Introduction xvii Morton Deutsch
• Part one: Interpersonal and Intergroup Processes, page 1
1 Cooperation, Competition, and Conflict, Morton Deutsch, page 3
2 Justice and Conflict, Morton Deutsch, page 29
*3 A Delicate and Deliberate Journey toward Justice: Challenging Privilege: Building Structures of Solidarity, Michelle Fine, Alexis Halkovic (the * means that this chapter is new compared to the 2nd edition), page 56
4 Constructive Controversy: The Value of Intellectual Opposition, David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson, Dean Tjosvold, page 76
5 Trust, Trust Development, and Trust Repair, Roy J. Lewicki, Edward C. Tomlinson, page 104
6 Power and Conflict, Peter T. Coleman, page 137
7 Communication and Conflict, Robert M. Krauss, Ezequiel Morsella, page 168
8 Language, Peace, and Conflict Resolution, Francisco Gomes de Matos, page 182
9 The PSDM Model: Integrating Problem Solving and Decision Making in Conflict Resolution, Eben A. Weitzman, Patricia Flynn Weitzman, page 203
10 Intergroup Conflict, Ronald J. Fisher, page 230
• Part two: Intrapsychic and Intragroup Processes, page 253
11 Judgmental Biases in Conflict Resolution and How to Overcome Them, Leigh L. Thompson, Brian J. Lucas, page 255
12 Emotion and Conflict: Why It Is Important to Understand How Emotions Affect Conflict and How Conflict Affects Emotions, Evelin G. Lindner, page 283
13 Self-Regulation in the Service of Conflict Resolution, Walter Mischel, Aaron L. DeSmet, Ethan Kross, page 310
*14 Group Decision Making in Conflict: From Groupthink to Polythink in the War in Iraq, Alex Mintz, Carly Wayne, page 331
• Part three: Personal Differences, page 353
*15 Natural-Born Peacemakers? Gender and the Resolution of Conflict, Mara Olekalns, page 355
16 Resolving Intractable Intergroup Conflicts: The Role of Implicit Theories about Groups, Eran Halperin, James J. Gross, Carol S. Dweck, page 384
17 Personality and Conflict, Sandra V. Sandy, Susan K. Boardman, Morton Deutsch, page 400
18 The Development of Conflict Resolution Skills: Preschool to Adulthood, Sandra V. Sandy, page 430
• Part four: Creativity and Change, page 465
19 Creativity and Conflict Resolution: The Role of Point of View, Howard E. Gruber, page 467
20 Some Guidelines for Developing a Creative Approach to Conflict, Peter T. Coleman, Morton Deutsch, page 478
21 Creativity in the Outcomes of Conflict, Peter J. Carnevale, page 490
22 Change and Conflict: Motivation, Resistance, and Commitment, Eric C. Marcus, page 513
23 Changing Minds: Persuasion in Negotiation and Conflict Resolution, Alison Ledgerwood, Shannon P. Callahan, Shelly Chaiken, page 533
24 Learning through Reflection on Experience: An Adult Learning Framework for How to Handle Conflict, Victoria J. Marsick, Dorothy E. Weaver, Lyle Yorks, page 558
• Part five: Culture and Conflict, page 579
*25 The Alchemy of Change: Cultural Fluency in Conflict Resolution, Michelle LeBaron, page 581
*26 Indigenous Lessons for Conflict Resolution, Geneviève Souillac, Douglas P. Fry, page 604
*27 Multiculturalism and Conflict, Mekayla K. Castro, Peter T. Coleman, page 623
28 Cooperative and Competitive Conflict in China, Dean Tjosvold, Kwok Leung, David W. Johnson, page 654
• Part six: Difficult Conflicts, page 679
29 Aggression and Violence: Causes and Correctives, Wen Liu, Susan Opotow, page 681
30 Intractable Conflict, Peter T. Coleman, page 708
*31 The Pragmatics of Peace with Justice: The Challenge of Integrating Mediation and Human Rights, Eileen F. Babbitt, page 745
*32 Terrorism: Negotiating at the Edge of the Abyss, Guy Olivier Faure, page 764
• Part seven: Models of Practice, page 793
*33 Negotiation, Roy J. Lewicki, Edward C. Tomlinson, page 795
34 The Mediation of Conflict: Context, Cognition, and Practice, Kenneth Kressel, page 817
35 Teaching Conflict Resolution Skills in a Workshop, Susan W. Coleman, Yaron Prywes, page 849
*36 Creating Constructive Communication through Dialogue, Beth Fisher-Yoshida, page 877
*37 An Empirically Based Approach to Couples' Conflict, John Gottman, Julie S. Gottman, Andy Greendorfer, Mirabai Wahbe, page 898
38 Managing Conflict through Large Group Methods, Barbara Benedict Bunker, Susan W. Coleman, page 921
*39 Group Relations and Conflict Resolution, Sarah J. Brazaitis, page 947
*40 Reconciliation between Groups: Preventing (New) Violence and Improving Lives, Ervin Staub, page 971
*41 Social Networks, Social Media, and Conflict Resolution, James D. Westaby, Nicholas Redding, page 998
*42 Using Research Findings in Practice: From Knowledge Acquisition to Application, Daniel Druckman, page 1023
*43 Nonviolent Struggle: An Overview, Gene Sharp, page 1043
• Part eight: Looking to the Future, page 1059
44 A Framework for Thinking about Research on Conflict Resolution Initiatives, Morton Deutsch, Jennifer Goldman-Wetzler, Christine T. Chung, page 1061
45 Some Research Frontiers in the Study of Conflict and Its Resolution, Dean G. Pruitt, Katharina G. Kugler, page 1087
Concluding Overview, Peter T. Coleman, Eric C. Marcus, page 1111
About the Editors, page 1125
About the Contributors, page 1129
• Part nine: Domain Specific Chapters 46 through 56 are available exclusively as online downloads. Visit www.wiley.com/go/coleman for more information.
46 Gender Conflict in Marriage, Janice M. Steil, Beth Turetsky
*47 Conflict Resolution in Schools, David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson
48 Conflict in Organizations, W. Warner Burke
*49 Labor Relations and Conflict, Christopher Honeyman
*50 Alternative and Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Context: Formal, Informal, and Semiformal Legal Processes, Carrie Menkel-Meadow
*51 Police and Conflict Resolution: Some Observations, Maria R. Volpe
*52 Participatory Action Research, Conflict Resolution, and Communities, Claudia E. Cohen, Rebecca Neshkes, Michelle Pryce-Screen, Elizabeth Hernandez, Micaela Linder, Megan Doherty-Baker
53 Faith Matters: Religion as a Third Side for Peace, Bridget Moix
*54 Nongovernmental Organizations as a Vehicle for Collective Action, Andrea Bartoli, Borislava Manojlovic, Mark Magellan
*55 Managing Environmental Conflict, Joshua Fisher
*56 International Conflict Resolution: From Practice to Knowledge and Back Again, Anthony Wanis-St. John, Suzanne Ghais

Beyond Humiliation: Toward Learning That Dignifies the Lives of All People
By Linda M. Hartling, Evelin G. Lindner, Michael F. Britton, and Ulrich J. Spalthoff
In: Gary P. Hampson, Matthew Rich-Tolsma (Eds.), Leading Transformative Higher Education Volume Two: Studies, Reflections, Questions, which forms the second volume of a three volume series Leadership in Transformation of Worldview and Higher Education, chapter 8, pp. 134-146, Olomouc, Czech Republic: Palacký University Olomouc Press, 2013.
ISBN: 978-80-244-3918-1
• Introduction: Despite efforts by the brightest minds and the most prestigious institutions, we continue to struggle to identify the root causes of violence, war, genocide, and terrorism. Does poverty foment violence? Does competition for scarce resources trigger atrocities? Do religious, political, or cultural differences drive destructive acts of terrorism? Or, are human beings inherently aggressive? A growing body of research suggests that the dynamics of humiliation may be a common denominator, a missing link in our search for root causes of violence (Lindner, 2006, 2009, 2010). How is it possible that our learning institutions have largely overlooked this phenomenon until recently?
Although most people recognize that the world is becoming “a global village,” have our learning institutions kept pace with this transformation? Specifically, have they kept up with the transformation of human relationships in this new global village? Although it is clear that humankind is rapidly becoming more and more interconnected and interdependent, do we understand how these rapid changes are impacting our relationships? In an interconnected world, questions of dignity and respect become paramount (e.g., “Do you respect me and my culture?”). In addition, experiences of dignity and humiliation are magnified by social media and other forms of global communication. Yet, academia has been slow to examine the rapidly changing relational conditions that lead to feelings of humiliation, feelings that can lead to violence.
New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman illustrated the lack of knowledge about the impact of humiliation when he observed: “if I’ve learned one thing covering world affairs, it’s this: the single most underappreciated force in international relations is humiliation” (2003, para. 1). If we are going to make progress addressing the root causes of violence, our learning institutions must keep pace with the relational transformations that are taking place in the world today. The experience of humiliation is one example of a topic that has been largely overlooked in the academy until recently. Perhaps the reason is that the experience of humiliation does not fit into the compartmentalized methods of research that have dominated the traditions of academia. The experience of humiliation is complex; it can’t be understood from the perspective of one researcher, one discipline, one institution, or one culture. It is a very personal, and at the same time, a global experience. It takes a transdisciplinary, transcultural approach to understand the pernicious historical, social, psychological, cultural, economic, and political impact of humiliation in the world today. And so we have to ask: Are existing learning institutions adequately arranged in a way to facilitate the study of complex relational experiences like humiliation, or should we develop new methods and models of learning?
This chapter will use the efforts of the Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies (HumanDHS) network as an example of an innovative model of learning that taps into the knowledge of a global community. HumanDHS is a global transdisciplinary fellowship of researchers, practitioners, activists, artists, and others who collaborate in a spirit of mutual support to understand the complex dynamics of humiliation, especially as it relates to violence (Lindner, 2013). This chapter will outline the historical conditions that bring concerns about the dynamics of humiliation and human dignity to the forefront. It will suggest that learning based on equal dignity and realized through right relationships is not only a promising approach to interrupting cycles of humiliation, it may be a path to learning that will help humankind survive on this planet. Finally, it will describe the initial steps of a new global initiative to advance equal dignity through transformative higher education.
Contents:
• Foreword by Jonathan Reams
• 1. Introduction, by Gary P. Hampson and Matthew Rich-Tolsma
Context and character:
• 2. Toward transformative higher education: Weaving understanding together for humanity and biosphere, by Gary P. Hampson
• 3. Futures of education for rapid global-societal change, by Jennifer M. Gidley
• 4. Nurturing a new university: Experimental creativity and pathways with our futures, by Ananta Kumar Giri
• 5. Transversity: Transdisciplinarity in higher education, by Sue L T. McGregor and Russ Volckmann
• 6. A developmental embrace: Integrating adult development theory in teaching, mentorship and curriculum design, by Abigail Lynam
Purpose:
• 7. Creating a learning environment for transformation: A case study of a course in sustainability leadership, by Medina Missimer, Marco Valente, Tracy Meisterheim And Pierre Johnson
• 8. Beyond humiliation: Toward learning that dignifies the lives of all people, by Linda M. Hartling, Evelin G Lindner, Michael Britton and Ulrich Spalthoff
Specifics:
• 9. The willed curriculum and post-secondary learning, by Carlo Ricci
• 10. Epistemic map-making: Writing as a tool in post-formal professional development, by Heather Fester
Horizons:
• 11. Ubiquity university: A university of the future? by Peter Merry and Jim Garrison
• 12. (De)colonising my academic self: Manifesting a dream of transformative education in Murter, Croatia, by Irena Ateljevic

Konstruktive Veränderungsprozesse in der Behandlung von traumatisierten oder anders gedemütigten Menschen
Referat 5 (simultan übersetzt ins Französische), 13. September 2013, 15.30 - 16.30, im PSY & PSY-Kongress 2013 "Übergänge - eine Herausforderung / Les défits de la transition," einem gemeinsamen Kongress der Psychologen- und Psychiaterverbände der Schweiz in Montreux, Schweiz.
Sie sehen hier:
Vortrag als Powerpoint Präsentation mit Audio und Video vom 18. September 2013 (in case of trouble with downloading the document here, it is also stored on Dropbox, and Linda Hartling created a YouTube version.)
Manuskript des Vortrages vom 18. September 2013
Photos
• Abstract: Nach einem Erdbeben oder einem Unfall sind Menschen oft traumatisiert. Sie sind schockiert. Sie fühlen sich jedoch normalerweise nicht gedemütigt. Es ist ein Unterschied, ob Schmerzen durch höhere Gewalt verursacht werden, oder ob ein Mitmensch einen anderen demütigt. Die Schmerzen sind dann tiefer und schwerer zu überwinden. Fragen nach dem Selbstwert werden dann relevant, nach Rache oder Vergebung.
In Ruanda wurde Völkermord begangen als Antwort auf gefühlte Demütigung. Im Fall der systemischen Demütigung durch die Apartheid in Südafrika wurden Wahrheitskommissionen eingesetzt. Nelson Mandela besaß die menschliche Größe, Demütigung nicht mit Vergeltung zu beantworten. Er hatte die Kraft, tiefgreifende systemische Veränderungen auf den Weg zu bringen, und zwar durch etwas, was Paulo Freire conscientização, oder kritische Bewusstseinsbildung nennt und Clodomir de Morais systemische Bewusstseinsbildung.
Aus der Tiefe des Schmerzes der Demütigung erreichte Mandela das höchste Niveau von Sinnhaftigkeit, wie es von Denkern wie Viktor Frankl beschrieben wird.
Jeder Einzelne kann für sich selbst ein solches Niveau von Sinnhaftigkeit, erreichen. Es bedarf jedoch einer gewissen Anstrengung. Mandela hätte sich in sein Privatleben zurückziehen können; er ist jedoch gegen ein ganzes System aufgestanden. Auch heute ist dieser Mut nötig.
Es gibt heute zwei Gründe, warum Demütigung zunimmt; die Realität ändert sich, und die Wahrnehmung. Demütigung wird in einem sozialen Kontext der individuellen Menschenwürde stärker  wahrgenommen als in einem Kontext der kollektiven Ehre. [siehe Titel dieses Kongresses „Übergänge - eine Herausforderung“]
Es ist die Verantwortung jeden Bürgers, die Atmosphäre in der Gesellschaft so zu gestalten, dass diese Art von Sinnhaftigkeit nicht belächelt, sondern gefördert wird. Dazu gehört es, auf gesellschaftlicher Ebene umzudefinieren, was Eigennutz ist, und was Idealismus. [siehe Titel dieses Kongresses „Übergänge - eine Herausforderung“] Der Volksentscheidung zur Begrenzung von Managergehältern in der Schweiz ist ein vorbildliches Beispiel für die Welt.
• Evelin Lindner erhielt den SBAP. Preis 2006 in Angewandter Psychologie des Schweizerischer Berufsverband für Angewandte Psychologie.
Auswirkungen von Demütigung auf Menschen und Völker, Vortrag aus Anlass der 3. Verleihung des SBAP. Preises in Angewandter Psychologie, verliehen vom Schweizerischen Berufsverband für Angewandte Psychologie SBAP an Evelin Lindner. Siehe auch ein kurzes einführendes Statement.
Four Horsemen - Feature Documentary, 2013, recommended by Anthony Marsella.

International Day of Democracy: The Contribution of the Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies Network (see also here, listen to Evelin Lindner reading the article)
By Linda Hartling, Evelin Lindner, Michael Britton, and Ulrich Spalthoff
In Global Education Magazine, Nr. 5, Special Issue, "International Day of Democracy," (Pdf) pp. 94 - 95, 2013 (ISSN 1155 - 033X), invited by Javier Collado, Director of Edition of Global Education Magazine, a humanistic and educational magazine supported by the Regional Office of Latinamerica and the Caribbean of UNESCO and UNHCR. The initiative started after the most voted proposal on Rio+20. The Global Education Magazine promotes complex thinking as a way to achieve a holistic understanding of the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations (MDG) by the world-society, creating a horizontal dissemination of the knowledge, where teachers, Nobel Prizes, volunteers, UN workers, students, etc. could share their reflections in a common space. See their academical philosophy, ISSN 2255-033X.
2013 issues:
•  March 8th 2013: Woman Day
•  September 15th 2013: International Day of Democracy
•  December 10th 2013: Human Rights Day
Links:
•  Global Education Magazine publications
•  Newsletters: eepurl.com and rediris.es
•  Facebook
•  Twitter
•  LikedIn
•  RSS
•  Vimeo

Humiliation: A Nuclear Bomb of Emotions?
By Linda M. Hartling, Evelin G. Lindner, Ulrich J. Spalthoff, and Michael F. Britton
In Psicología Política, Número 46, Mayo 2013, pp. 55-76.
This is a monograph on political psychology in Europe, compiled by J. Francisco Morales, monograph coordinator, and Adela Garzón, main editor of Psicología Política. (ISSN 1138-0853: edición impresa, ISSN 2340-3810: edición digital)

Shame, Humiliation, and Humility: How Human Rights Ideals Impact their Roles in the Continuum of Balance and the Continuum of Toxicity
Reflections in response to Hélène Lewis questions in connection with her work on shame, 2012.

Evelin Lindner, Ph.D.: Public Conversation on Professional, Cultural, and Personal Topics with Michael H. Prosser, Ph.D.
July 17, 2012 [Post 566].

South America 2012: Reflections on a "Digniventure"
End of March to End of July 2012, South America.

Fostering Global Citizenship
In: Peter T. Coleman, and Morton Deutsch (Eds.), Psychological Components of Sustainable Peace: An Introduction, Peace Psychology Book Series, New York: Springer Science+Business Media, 2012, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-3555-6_1, ISBN: 978-1-4614-3554-9, ISBN 978-1-4614-3555-6 (eBook), chapter 15, pp. 283-298. See the flyer and invitation to the book launch on November 7, 2012. Please see the video of the book launch on the ICCCR website and on YouTube.
•  Abstract: The purpose of this book is to enhance understanding of sustainable peace by supplementing the standard approach of studying the prevention of destructive conflict, violence, war and injustice with the equally important investigation of the promotion of the basic conditions and processes conducive to lasting peace. For in addition to addressing the pervasive realities of oppression, violence and war, peace requires us to understand and envision what alternatives we wish to construct. Recognizing the ultimate need for multidisciplinary frameworks to best comprehend and foster sustainable peace, we hoped to elicit what contemporary psychology might have to contribute to such a framework. This chapter provides a brief historical and conceptual context for the many fine scholarly chapters that follow in the book.
Francisco Gomes de Matos kindly wrote (29th November 2013): Dear Evelin, in rereading your page 291 statement "I suggest focusing on the individual, ...and I propose to extend the field of intercultural communication into the field of global interhuman communication" my mind (and heart) created this rhymed reflection:
For a more dignified-dignifying future: A plea by Francisco Gomes de Matos, a peace linguist, Cofounder, The World Dignity University initiative
In co-building a future that for humankind will be more dignified
A new global citizenship goal will have to  be creatively signified
In which an intercultural approach to dignifying communication will be proposed
and to exemplary individual uses of communicative dignity people will be exposed 
If for human beings and communities a more dignified future is to be anticipated
In Gobal Ctizenship, people as dignifiers everywhere will have to be educated

Contents:
• 1. Psychological Components of Sustainable Peace: An Introduction, Morton Deutsch and Peter T. Coleman, pp. 1-14
•  2. Effective Cooperation, The Foundation of Sustainable Peace, David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson and Dean Tjosvold, pp. 15-53
•  3. Constructive Conflict Resolution and Sustainable Peace, Peter T. Coleman, pp. 55-84
•  4. Creative Problem Solving: Not Just About the Problem, Daniel L. Shapiro, pp. 85-104
•  5. Transforming Communication for Peace, Beth Fisher-Yoshida, pp. 105-120
•  6. LIF PLUS: The Life-Improving Force of Peaceful Language Use, Francisco Gomes de Matos, pp. 121-129
•  7. The Role of Equality in Negotiation and Sustainable Peace, Cecilia Albin and Daniel Druckman, pp. 131-151
•  8. Sustaining Peace through Psychologically Informed Policies: The Geohistorical Context of Malaysia, Daniel J. Christie and Noraini M. Noor, pp. 153-175
•  9. Justice, Activity, and Narrative: Studying of the World March for Peace and Nonviolence, Carolina Muñoz Proto and Susan Opotow, pp. 177-196
•  10. Gender and Sustainable Peace, Abigail Disney and Leymah Gbowee, pp. 197-203
•  11. The Psychodynamics of Peace, Alon Gratch, pp. 205-225
•  12. Culture of Peace, Douglas P. Fry and Marta Miklikowska, pp. 227-243
•  13. Reconciliation Between Groups, the Prevention of Violence, and Lasting Peace, Ervin Staub, pp. 245-263
•  14. Sustainable Peace: A Dynamical Systems Perspective, Andrzej Nowak, Lan Bui-Wrzosinska, Robin Vallacher and Peter T. Coleman, pp. 265-281
•  15: Fostering Global Citizenship, Evelin Lindner, pp. 283-298
•  16. A Framework for Thinking About Developing a Global Community, Morton Deutsch, Eric C. Marcus and Sarah Brazaitis, pp. 299-324
•  17. Education for Sustainable Peace: Practices, Problems and Possibilities, Betty A. Reardon, pp. 325-352
•  18. Conclusion: The Essence of Peace? Toward a Comprehensive and Parsimonious Model of Sustainable Peace, Peter T. Coleman, pp. 353-369

When Evelin Lindner was first invited to contribute with a chapter to this book, its first working title was The Psychological Components of a Sustainable, Humane, Peaceful World.
The papers listed further down represent the first four drafts for this chapter, developed from February 2010 to December 2010. The papers are rather different from each other. They illustrate the process of developing the ideas for this chapter. The title of each draft was suggested by Morton Deutsch, as was the main structure of each paper, including most of the main section headings. The titles and the section headings thus represent a question, or a challenge posed by Morton Deutsch to Evelin Lindner to respond to. The text of each section can therefore be read as a responses to Morton Deutsch's formulation of the headings.
• Chapter version 4, March 10, 2011: Fostering Global Citizenship (2)
• Chapter version 3, October 15, 2010: Fostering Global Citizenship (1)
• Chapter version 2, May 30, 2010: Why Global Citizenship Is Needed for Global Peace
• Chapter version 1, February 25, 2010: Harmonious and Sustainable Peaceful Relations: How They Can Be Fostered by Fulfilling Basic Human Needs and Nurturing Positive Emotions and How the Frustration of Basic Needs Can Lead to Destructive Emotions and Interactions

Humiliation and Dignity
In: Daniel J. Christie, The Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, ISBN 978-1-4051-9644-4, Published Online: 13 November 2011, doi: 10.1002/9780470672532.wbepp131.
The Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology has been recognized as an American Library Association Oustanding Reference Source of 2013. This is an affirming award that recognizes the quality and value of this resource. Please find a flyer here, or on the Wiley site.

Terror in Norway: How Can We Continue from a Point of Utter Despair? Promoting a Dignity Culture, not Just Locally, but Globally
Paper prepared for the 17th Annual Conference of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies “Enlarging the Boundaries of Compassion” in Dunedin, New Zealand, 29th August - 1st September 2011.
•  Introduction: On 22nd July 2011, Norway suffered two sequential terrorist attacks against its civilian population, the government, and a political summer camp in Norway. This tragedy has shocked Norway to the point that even mentioning the name of the 32-year-old perpetrator Anders Behring Breivik was being avoided for a while and ABB was being used to refer to him. He was first regarded as right-wing terrorist and later, in an initial evaluation, diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. A second evaluation began on 13th January 2012. The guiding questions of this paper are the following: What should be done after such atrocities have occurred? How can one continue from a point of utter despair? What can a society do to help its members? What can a society do to help prevent repetitions of similar acts of violence in the future?

What about Dignism?
Prepared for The Journal of Globalisation for the Common Good (JGCG), co-editors Yahya Kamalipour and Kamran Mofid.
Paper 2, 8th August 2011
Paper 1, 4th August 2011 (too long for the intended purpose, too many footnotes, and too complicated language)

Harmony as Dignity and Protection from Humiliation
Written for Leo Semashko, first version, 7th June 2011, for The ABC of Harmony.

Evelin Lindner: A Nondualist
Written for Evelin Frerk, in English and German, 5th April 2011, for Humanismus.

Et liv uten grenser
I: Ny Tid, av Torbjørn Tumyr Nilsen, 4. mars, 2011, Nummer 9, 59. årgang, side 21.

Respekt og likeverd fremfor alt
I: Vårt Land, av Olav Solvang, 17. februar 2011

Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies: A Global Network Advancing Dignity Through Dialogue
By Evelin G. Lindner, Linda M. Hartling, and Ulrich J. Spalthoff
In: Policy Futures in Education, 9 (1, Special Issue: The Council of Europe's White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue), 2011, pp. 66-73, ISSN 1478-2103.
and in: Besley, Tina and Michael Peters (Eds.) (2011), Interculturalism, Education and Dialogue, New York, Peter Lang.
Abstract: The theoretical, legal, and political framework for human rights is a topic that is being discussed by many international organisations. The underlying concept of human dignity, however, is less disputed and receives less attention. This shortcoming is addressed by the Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies (HumanDHS) network. It is a global transdisciplinary fellowship of individuals dedicated to end humiliating practises and promote human dignity around the world. They strive to stimulate systemic change, globally and locally, with the aim to open space for mutual respect and esteem, thus ending humiliating practises and breaking cycles of humiliation. The efforts of HumanDHS encourage practises that lead to equality in dignity through dignifying dialogue and collaborative action.

Hvordan skal menneskeheten organiseres?
I: CULCOM - Kulturell kompleksitet i det nye Norge, av Lorenz Khazaleh, 5. mars 2010.

(Ære)krenkelse (humiliation) – utgangspunkt for konflikt
Foredrag i Kurs i konfliktløsning, fredskultur og flerkulturell forståelse ("Course in conflict resolution, culture of peace, and cross-cultural understsanding"), 5.- 8. juli 2010, ved Nordland Akademi for Kunst og Vitenskap, Melbu, Vesterålen.
Organised by Ingeborg Breines.
See the invitation to the course, and the annual Sommer-Melbu festival.
See pictures.

From Shock to Awe: The World on a Trajectory from Humiliation to Dignity - A List of “Factoids”
Paper presented at the 15th Annual Conference of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies "Peace at Home, Peace in the World," in Istanbul, Turkey, 28th - 30th April 2010
Abstract: When I wrote the Gender and Humiliation: Power and Dignity in Love, Sex, Parenthood and Global Community Building book in 2009, the publisher asked me to make a list of “factoids,” examples of pieces of information that illustrate the message of the book. A list of some of the factoids that I collected is presented in this paper. They illustrate the transitional processes that characterize human history at the current point in time.

Globalpsykologen Evelin Lindner: Eg har møtt ei som vil endra verda
Interview with Arne Olav L. Hageberg on 20th January 2010, Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening, vol. 47, nr. 3, 227–234

Disasters As a Chance to Implement Novel Solutions that Highlight Attention to Human Dignity
In: Adenrele Awotona (Ed.), Rebuilding Sustainable Communities for Children and their Families after Disasters: A Global Survey, chapter 21, pp. 335-358, University of Massachusetts, Boston, U.S.A., Proceedings of the International Conference on Rebuilding Sustainable Communities for Children and Their Families after Disasters, convened by Adenrele Awotona at the College of Public and Community Service, November 16-19, 2008, published by Cambridge Scholars Publishing, U.K.: Newcastle upon Tyne, ISBN 9781443817769, and as e-book by MyILibrary (LaVergne, TN), 2010.
awotona•  Introduction to Lindner's chapter: Let me start by expressing my warmest congratulations to Adenrele Awotona for establishing the Center for Rebuilding Sustainable Communities after Disasters on July 6, 2008, at the University of Massachusetts, Boston. This paper is written for the Center’s inaugural conference. I am deeply honored to be part of this extremely timely, much-needed and worthy initiative.
When we read reports about emergency aid after disasters, or any kind of humanitarian and development aid, we are often presented with the following success stories: thousands of blankets have been distributed, millions of bags of food have been provided and millions of dollars have been spent. In the face of such “successes” we wonder why the final results have so far not been more convincing. The list of criticisms is long. Let me first refer to Living on the Edge of Emergency: Paying the Price of Inaction, the most recent CARE International report by Amber Meikle and Vanessa Rubin (2008). Another provocative title is Do No Harm: How Aid Can Support Peace—Or War, by Mary B. Anderson (1999). What is the problem? Is it a complex problem with no clear answers, or are there basic patterns? Are there succinct answers to that question that can capture the core of the problem?
This paper discusses such succinct answers. It is therefore a rather conceptual paper. It attempts to embed the reconstruction after disaster into a larger historical context to expose core patterns (using a Weberian ideal-type approach1). The discussion of details and technicalities, though as important, is left to other levels of analysis and other occasions.
With the advent of human rights ideals, the notion of humiliation changes. Human rights “democratize” humiliation. Human rights endow every single human being with an inner core of equal dignity that ought not to be debased. The notion of humiliation changes its attachment point. It moves from the top to the bottom of the pyramid of power, from the privileged to the disadvantaged. Feelings of humiliation among the downtrodden are no less than the very “fuel” of the human rights revolution. In a human rights framework the downtrodden secure the right to feel humiliated. The human rights revolution turns the formerly legitimate humbling of underlings into illegitimate humiliation. The beaten wife and the girl who demands the right to make her own life decisions are informed by human rights defenders that “domestic chastisement” as it was enshrined in law (until 1868, for example, in Norway) is no longer legitimate, but has turned into illegitimate “domestic violence.” The beaten wife and the subjugated girl are encouraged to invoke humiliation. The masters, the elites, the husband, the father, on the other hand, are called upon to humble themselves. They are no longer given permission to resist this call by claiming superiority and designating their underlings’ protests as humiliation.
Humiliation is at the core of the current human rights revolution and the related transition from ranked honor to equal dignity. Today, in the aftermath of the 1757 shift in meaning of the verb “to humiliate,” the practice of humiliating people can no longer serve pro-social purposes. The overall normative frame no longer allows for that. Only shaming and humbling can still be applied in such ways; and indeed, human rights activists around the world busily confront companies and countries in the attempt to shame them into keeping their promises as protectors of the environment and human rights. While humbling and shaming still work pro-socially, humiliation no longer does. We do not wish to have shameless people as neighbors; indeed, we wish to be surrounded by humble people who respect the law, yet we do not endorse societies filled with humiliated underlings. Applying humiliation has turned obscene. The worldwide reaction to practices of humiliation at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq represents a case in point. Bringing down dictators and their followers, if done with humiliation, does not lead to the intended peace. On the contrary, Mandela did not humiliate the white elite in South Africa: he humbled them. In my work I treat Mandela in the spirit of a Weberian ideal-type approach and focus on his constructive strategies, which are not diminished by criticisms that people may direct at his movement or at him as a person. This new illegitimacy of the practice of humiliation as part of the human rights revolution, which renders the ranking of human worthiness illicit, marks a profoundly significant shift.
Clearly, however, humankind is far from having arrived in a world where everybody enjoys equal dignity. The human rights revolution has not yet been “won.” Traditional honor norms - what I call the traditional structural disaster - are still alive and thriving. Ranked honor is still subscribed to by many segments of world society, not least in certain segments of Western societies - see, for example, Bertram Wyatt-Brown (1982) and his study of the history of American Southern Honor. Many elites still feel entitled to superiority and do not enter into the cooperation that is necessary to make the world a more even playing field. They still invoke humiliation when asked to humble themselves.
Humanitarian aid workers who wish to promote human rights are caught in this conundrum. Julia A. Demichelis illustrated these cases most impressively in her presentation Lessons to Learn: Roles of Government, Private Sector and NGOs in Disaster Reconstruction in Fragile States and Impoverished Communities (as part of this Conference’s Panel “Disasters and Innovative Solutions”). Humanitarian helpers are obliged to help victims; they cannot, however, condone solutions that violate human rights. How are human rights defenders to react if asked to support victims who proceed to become new oppressive masters? How are they to respond to allegations that they humiliate victims by not helping them with violent uprisings? Enraged people, invoking victimhood and feeling entitled to violate human rights as a remedy, may emerge as powerful humiliators of human rights defenders.
The situation is further complicated when people resort to the traditional strategies of defending honor in one contextas honorable elites - while decrying the debasement of dignity in another contextas the victims of dignity humiliation. For example, a man might demand from the elites of the world that they fulfill the human-rights promise and treat him as an equal, while overlooking the fact that he is not treating his own wife and daughters as equals. In other words, we live in a confused world where traditional honor norms linger on, even though they stand in stark contradiction to future-oriented equal dignity norms. While the two moral universes are diametrically opposed - one condones ranked worthiness, the other equal worthiness for all - they are sometimes intertwined without people being aware that they are incompatible.
Contents:
Introduction by Adenrele Awotona, pp. xvii-xxviii

Part I: Cross-Cutting Themes
• Chapter One - A Sociological Perspective on Disasters by Russell K. Schutt, pp. 3-12
• Chapter Two - A Gendered Human Rights Approach to Rebuilding after Disaster, by Elaine Enarson, pp. 13-28
• Chapter Three - Place Loss and Rebuilding Sustainable Communities, by Mindy Thompson Fullilove and Robert E. Fullilove, pp. 29-42
• Chapter Four - Three Answers to Urban Poverty: Consistent Leadership, Organizational Partnerships, and Faith Community Involvement, by Jonathan Wortmann, Robert Bachelder and Paul Block, pp. 43-68
• Chapter Five - Participatory Video as a Tool for Rebuilding Communities for Children and Youth in the Aftermath of Disaster: A Proposal, by Myra Margolin, pp. 69-82
• Chapter Six - Rebuilding Sustainable Communities after Disasters: Municipal Emergency Preparedness for Special Populations, by Sonja Darai, pp. 83-94
• Chapter Seven - A Practical Guide for Assistance Organizations—Avoiding Dangerous Dependencies and Achieving Sustainable Prevention and Mitigation of Disaster Impacts in Communities, by John W. Barbee, pp. 95-104
• Chapter Eight - From Emergency Relief to Livelihood Recovery after the Tsunami: What Post-Disaster Management Lessons?, by Philippe Régnier, pp. 105-120
• Chapter Nine - The Nature of Psychosocial Resilience and its Significance for Managing Mass Emergencies, Disasters and Terrorism, by Richard Williams and John Drury, pp. 121-149
Part II: Rebuilding Sustainable Communities for Children
• Chapter Ten - The Impact of Violence and Disaster on Children and How to Help them Heal and Thrive Afterwards, by Diane E. Levin, pp. 151-158
• Chapter Eleven - Katrina and Kids: The Impact, the Sequelae, by Chester Hartman and Gregory D. Squires, pp. 159-170
• Chapter Twelve - The Role of Schools in Rebuilding Sustainable Communities after Disasters, by Beryl Cheal, pp. 171-184
• Chapter Thirteen - “Child Participation”: A Concept to Consider—Lessons Learnt from Ecuador, by Cecile de Milliano and Pat Gibbons, pp. 185-206
• Chapter Fourteen - The Dilemma of Reintegrating Child Soldiers in Nepal: An Analysis from Child Rights NGO Perspectives, by Sanjaya Aryal, pp. 207-222
• Chapter Fifteen - Using Songs as an Effective Educational Tool for Teaching Disasters to Preschoolers, by
Yasamin O. Izadkhah and Mahmood Hosseini, pp. 223-238
Part III: Rebuilding Sustainable Communities After Wars
• Chapter Sixteen - The Lebanese in Post-Conflict Liberia, by Shelby Grossman, pp. 239-258
• Chapter Seventeen - Female Ex-Child Soldiers: A Case Study of East and West Africa, by Grace Oyebola Adetula, pp. 259-276
• Chapter Eighteen - War and Misunderstanding: Errors of Judgment in Colombian Job-Training Policies, by
Alvaro Gallardo and Humberto García, pp. 277-288
Part IV: Rebuilding Sustainable Energy Infrastructure
• Chapter Nineteen - Rebuilding Critical Energy Assets in Times of Disaster: Strategies for a Resilient System, by Justin Dargin, pp. 289-302
• Chapter Twenty - Energy as a Compounding Disaster Component, by Michael Donlan, pp. 303-334
Part V: Disasters and Innovative Solutions
• Chapter Twenty-One - Disasters as a Chance to Implement Novel Solutions that Highlight Attention to Human Dignity, by Evelin Lindner, pp. 335-358
• Chapter Twenty-Two - Social and Economic Mobility for the Roma in Hungary: A Look at Government Initiatives and International Responses, by Nichole Fiore, pp. 359-374
Bibliography

Traumatized by Humiliation in Times of Globalization: Transforming Humiliation into Constructive Meaning
In: Ani Kalayjian, and Dominique Eugene (Eds.), Mass Trauma and Emotional Healing Around the World: Rituals and Practices for Resilience, vol. 2: Human-Made Disasters, chapter 20, pp. 361-382, Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, ABC-CLIO, 2010. See the original long version of the chapter.
Volume 1 (Natural Disasters)
Volume 2 (Human-Made Disasters)

kalayjian vol2•  Overview: The phenomenon of humiliation is currently gaining significance, not least for victims of disasters and care-givers. In former times, rulers were not held responsible for looking after the well-being of their subjects. Rulers fought their wars over honor and land and the suffering of their subjects went unmentioned. When people perished, through human-made or natural disaster, and if they were traumatized, this meant little.
At present, this state-of-affairs is in the process of changing, albeit only in a piecemeal fashion. Whenever disasters are caused or responded to in negligent or fraudulent ways - for example, when some line their pockets with the funds intended for victims - this is increasingly felt to be humiliating. The reason for this change is that human rights introduce a new moral frame, a moral prerogative that stipulates that every human being deserves to be treated as equal in dignity. Human rights turn practices that were normal for thousands of years, namely that higher beings preside over lesser beings, into an illicit and humiliating violation. Therefore, the deepest trauma, within the new framework of human rights, might in some cases develop post-disaster, from being treated in ways that remove dignity, rather than from the disaster itself.
This chapter lays out the changing role of humiliation for trauma and how it is essential for meaning-making and resilience in the spirit of Viktor Frankl's work, particularly in current times of moral transition. Frankl calls for developing a wider horizon, both within ourselves and out in the world. In practice, today, this means learning how to walk the talk, both within each individual and in relation to others, and how to build a sustainable global community. Care-givers, in their pivotal role, carry a primary responsibility to help bring about these transformations.
Contents:
Volume 1: Natural Disasters
Introduction, by Ani Kalayjian and Dominique Eugene, pp. xi-xii
• Chapter 1 – Earthquake in Soviet Armenia: Coping, Integration, and Meaning-Making, by Ani Kalayjian, Yuki Shigemoto, and Bindia Patel, pp. 1-22
• Chapter 2 – Northridge Earthquake in Southern California: Lessons Learned and Meanings Discovered, by Ani Kalayjian and Christina Di Liberto, pp. 23-36
• Chapter 3 – Using Play to Support Children Traumatized by Natural Disasters: Chuetsu Earthquake Series in Japan, by Akiko J. Ohnogi, pp. 37-54
• Chapter 4 – Coping with the Earthquake in Pakistan: A Religio-Culturally Informed Treatment, by Ani Kalayjian, Nicole Moore, and Kate Richmond, pp. 55-72
• Chapter 5 – Coping with Hurricane Andrew: Preparedness, Resilience, and Meaning-Making, by Ani Kalayjian, Eleanor Donovan, and Yuki Shigemoto, pp. 73-92
• Chapter 6 – Weathering the Storms like Bamboo: The Strengths of Haitians in Coping with Natural Disasters, by Guerda Nicolas, Billie Schwartz, and Elizabeth Pierre, pp. 93-106
• Chapter 7 – Resilience and Healing among Helping Professionals and People of Sri Lanka: Post Tsunami, by Merry Evenson and Jenny Doughterty, pp. 107-124
• Chapter 8 – A Disaster Outreach Program for Tsunami Survivors in Sri Lanka: The Biopsychosocial, Educational, and Spiritual Approach, by Ani Kalayjian, Nicole Moore, Judy Kuriansky, and Chris Aberson, pp. 125-150
• Chapter 9 – Cross-Cultural Counseling Issues: Transpersonal and Clinical Counseling Training for Recovery Workers and Psychologists in Post-Trauma Indonesia, by Beth Hedva, Elisabeth Arman, and Harold Finkleman
• Chapter 10 – Ecological Worldview: From Ego to Eco, by Scott Carlin, Ani Kalayjian, Michelle Kim, and Elissa Jacobs
• Chapter 11 – Long-term Impacts on Personal and Spiritual Values for French Canadian Elderly Victims of a Flood in Québec: A Question of Resilience, by Danielle Maltais and Simon Gauthier, pp. 193-210
Volume 2: Human-Made Disasters
• Chapter 12 – The Ongoing Impact of Colonizatoin: Man-made Trauma and Native Americans, by Hilary Weaver and Elaine Congress, pp. 211-226
• Chapter 13 – Post-Slavery Syndrome: A Multigenerational Look at African American Injury, Healing, and Resilience, by Joy Angela DeGruy, pp. 227-250
• Chapter 14 – Striving for Peace through Forgiveness in Sierra Leone: Effectiveness of a Psychoeducational Forgiveness Intervention, by Loren L. Toussaint, Nancy Peddle, Alyssa Cheadle, Anthony Sellu, and Frederic Luskin, pp. 251-268
• Chapter 15 – Cultural Competence in the Trauma Treatment of Thai Survivors of Modern-Day Slavery: The Relevance of Buddhist Mindfulness Practices and Healing Rituals to Transform Shame and Guilt of Forced Prostitution, by Ginger Villareal Armas, pp. 269-286
• Chapter 16 – Exploring Long-term Impact of Mass Trauma on Physical Health, Coping, and Meaning: Exploration of the Ottoman Turkish Genocide of the Armenians, by Ani Kalayjian, Nicole Moore, Chris Aberson, and Sehoon Kim, pp. 287-306
• Chapter 17 – Gender and Genocide: Armenian and Greek Women Finding Positive Meaning in the Horror, by Artemis Pipinelli and Ani Kalayjian, pp. 307-326
• Chapter 18 – Psychosocial and Spiritual Impact of 9/11 Terrorism on Mental Health Professionals in America, by Ani Kalayjian, Beverly Musgrave, and Christ Aberson, pp. 327-342
• Chapter 19 – Healing Intergenerational Trauma among Aboriginal Communities, by Sarah Thompson, Christine Kopperud, and Lewis Mehl-Madrona, pp. 343-360
• Chapter 20 – Traumatized by Humiliation in Times of Globalization: Transforming Humiliation into Constructive Meaning, by Evelin G. Lindner, pp. 361-382
• Chapter 21 – Gypsies as Victims of Nazi Persecution: Historical, Sociocultural, and Coping Perspectives, Andrea Zielke-Nadkarni, pp. 383-402
• Chapter 22 – Under Threat from HIV/AIDS: Burial Societies in Limpopo Privince, South Africa, by Beverly L. Peters, pp. 403-421
• Chapter 23 – The Cambodian Refugee Experience: An Intergrative Model of Trauma and Recovery, by Carl F. Auerbach and Edith Shiro-Gelrud, pp. 423-440

Dignity, Humiliation, and Peace Psychology
This text was prepared in 2010 for Morton Deutsch and Dan Christie.
Introduction: The central question of this paper is: “What can psychological theory and research contribute to the promotion of harmonious, sustainable peace?” I was invited by Morton Deutsch to consider how negative emotions and destructive interactions can flow from the frustration of basic needs can lead to, and how the fulfillment of basic needs can foster positive emotions and peaceful interactions.

Strategia e spontaneismo poli del nuovo terrorismo
A cura del Emanuela Del Re, rispondono: Evelin Gerda Lindner, Debidatta Aurobinda Mahapatra, Vincenzo Pace, Valeria Fiorani Piacentini
In: GNOSIS - Rivista Italiana di Intelligence, 1, 2009, pp. 20-51. See a preparatory text.
Era prevedibile che il terrorismo avrebbe spostato sempre più in là le sue frontiere. D’altra parte il mondo globalizzato, come lo si definisce oggi, di frontiere ne abbatte di continuo, pur ergendone paradossalmente altre. Il risultato è che il concetto di frontiera di per sé cambia continuamente non solo nel significato ma anche nel valore, nel senso del peso che ha non solo sulle politiche mondiali, ma anche sul singolo. La de-territorializzazione, che magicamente permette ai migranti in tutto il mondo di conservare radici forti con il Paese d’origine, attraverso i cosiddetti small media, attenuando il lacerante distacco, allo stesso tempo abolisce i confini della propaganda, che rimbalza indisturbata e con effetti imprevedibili dai satelliti e dalle reti informatiche....

Peace and Dignity: More than the Absence of Humiliation - What We Can Learn From the Asia-Pacific Region
This paper was written upon invitation from the Australian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies (ACPACS) at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, for their Occasional Papers Series, after the author had spent one month (August 2007) at ACPACS and had given a lecture on The Role of Dignity and Humiliation for Peace and Conflict Studies on 14th August 2007 (please see pictures). Since the Occasional Papers Series closed down in December 2009, this paper was being published here in 2009.
• Abstract: In an interdependent world, peace is not optional, it is compulsory, if humankind is to survive. Local conflicts, particularly protracted conflicts, are inscribed into, and taken hostage by larger global pressures, and vice versa, and this diffuses insecurity.
Peace is more than resolved conflict. What is needed is the pro-active creation of global social cohesion. In an interdependent world, security is no longer attainable through keeping enemies out but only through keeping a compartmentalised world together.
How do we, as humankind, keep a disjointed world together in a pro-active way? And how can Asia contribute to this task? This is the topic of this paper.
At the current point in human history, there is a window of opportunity. Never before have humans understood how small and vulnerable their habitat is. Combining the strengths of all cultures in a pro-active way is what is needed to build a harmonious global society.
This paper suggests that the most significant way for Asia to contribute to this task may lie in helping to create a new metaphysical orientation for the world, a new consciousness, one of nondualism. Asia is a cradle of nondualistic ontologies and can thus significantly contribute to creating novel designs for large-scale systemic change. The wide-spread Asian emphasis on harmonious societies entails great potential (when designed in nondualistic ways).

Dignity or Humiliation in Economic and Monetary Systems: Can We “Occupy Wall Street” and Transcend the Old Cs (Communism and Capitalism) through Economic Systems of True Inclusion? What about Inclusionism? Or Dignism?
This is a manuscript that has been in progress and has changed almost daily over a period of three years. The first version was presented on August 20, 2009, at the 13th Annual Conference of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies (HumanDHS) “World Peace through Humiliation-Free Global Human Interactions,” in Honolulu, Hawai’i (August 20-22, 2009), and has been developed further since. This is the last version in form of a paper, dating from October 15, 2011. From October 18, 2011, onward, a book on A Dignity Economy has been developed from this paper.

Anachronistic Acts - A Radio Feature
A radio feature by Bård Aune, including Evelin Lindner's contributions, recorded at the International Peace Bureau (IPB), Geneva, Switzerland, 22nd May 2009, aired in London, Goldsmiths College. Listen to the MP3 file of the interview (formerly available at rapidshare.com).

The "Prisoner’s Testament" Peace Award
Each year, Aktive Fredsreiser – Travel for Peace awards the following awards: Fangenes Testamente (The Prisoner’s Testament) and Blanche Majors Forsoningspris (Blanche Majors Reconciliation Award) in order to shine the spotlight on individuals and organisations that have contributed to peace making processes and to conflict resolution.
Evelin Lindner received this award in 2009 and the entire Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies network is deeply honored!
•  Innføring i arbeidet med verdighet og ydmykelse, 19th June 2009, Fredshuset (Peace House), Risør, Norway
•  Takketale ved overrekkelsen av prisen Fangenes Testamente
(acceptance speech, lecture expressing gratitude), 20th June 2009, Fredshuset (Peace House), Risør, Norway

How Asia Can Contribute to World Peace Psychology: Creating a Dignified and Peaceful World by Employing Unity in Diversity
In: Cristina Jayme Montiel, and Noraini N. Noor (Eds.), Peace Psychology in Asia, chapter 16, pp. 289-306. New York: Springer, 2009. ISBN 978-1-4419-0142-2. See the original version of the chapter.
peacepsychologyasia• Abstract: This chapter discusses how Asia can contribute to world peace psychology. It is based on the proposition that peace is best advanced by promoting unity together with equal rights and dignity for all (as stipulated by human rights). It suggests that the nondualistic principle of Unity in Diversity is a suitable guide, both as philosophical foundation and practical guideline.
Asia can contribute to Unity in Diversity in three ways. First, Asian emphasis on harmonious societies entails great potential (when designed in nondualistic ways) to help forge Unity. Second, Asia can also contribute to Diversity. Asia offers a whole range of valuable peace-inducing cultural competencies. Third, Asia, since it is a cradle of nondualistic ontologies, can help the world with the metaphysical orientation that is needed to connect unity and diversity in peace-inducing ways into the principle of Unity in Diversity. All chapters of this book underpin those three perspectives and are woven into this chapter.
Contents:
Part I Introduction to Peace Psychology in Asia
• Overview of Peace Psychology in Asia: Research, Practice, and Teaching by Cristina Jayme Montiel, p. 3
• Culture, Social Representations, and Peacemaking: A Symbolic Theory of History and Identity by James H. Liu and Chris G. Sibley, p. 21
Part II South Asia
• Where Are We Going? Perspective on Hindu–Muslim Relations in India by Sammyh S. Khan and Ragini Sen, p. 43
• Political Violence and Peacebuilding in Jammu and Kashmir by Waheeda Khan, p. 65
Part III Southeast Asia
• Peace Psychology of Grassroots Reconciliation: Lessons Learned from the “Baku Bae” Peace Movement by Hamdi Muluk and Ichsan Malik, p. 85
• Memory for Sale: How Groups “Distort” Their Collective Memory for Reconciliation Purposes and Building Peace by Hamdi Muluk, p. 105
• Contested Discourses on Violence, Social Justice, and Peacebuilding Among Indonesian Muslims by Yayah Khisbiyah, p. 123
• Interreligious Harmony and Peacebuilding in Indonesian Islamic Education by Florian Pohl, 147
• The Future of Malay–Chinese Relations in Malaysia by Noraini M. Noor, p. 161
• A Positioning Analysis of Moro Women’s Participation During and After the MNLF–GRP War by Brenda S. Batistiana, p. 173
• Human-Technology Interface in Philippine People Power by Ma. Regina E. Estuar and Cristina J. Montiel, p. 195
Part IV East Asia
• Forgiveness for Conflict Resolution in Asia: Its Compatibility with Justice and Social Control by Ken-ichi Ohbuchi and Naomi Takada, p. 221
• Toward Reconciliation of Historical Conflict Between Japan and China: Design Science for Peace in Asia by Tomohide Atsumi and Koichi Suwa, p. 237
• Is the Third Way Possible for Peace? The Dilemma of National Identity in Taiwan and Beyond by Li-Li Huang, p. 249
• Income Gap, Materialism, and Attitude toward the Rich in Developing Countries by Fan Zhou, p. 275
Part V Future of Peace Psychology in Asia
• How Asia Can Contribute to World Peace Psychology: Creating a Dignified and Peaceful World by Employing Unity in Diversity by Evelin Lindner, p. 289
• The Future of Peace Psychology in Asia by Noraini M. Noor, p. 307
• Index p. 323

Genocide, Humiliation, and Inferiority: An Interdisciplinary Perspective
In: Nicholas Robins, and Adam Jones (Eds.), Genocides by the Oppressed: Subaltern Genocide in Theory and Practice, chapter 7, pp. 138-158, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2009. See a corrected version of the chapter.
jones•  Abstract: Genocide has many perplexing characteristics. For example, is it solely and fundamentally about killing? If so, why are so many genocide victims not “merely” killed, but elaborately humiliated beforehand? Furthermore, are the victims of genocide not members of rather powerless minorities whose significance is blown up artificially? If so, why are resources mobilized to humiliate and kill people who are already powerless? Why, in short, are the powerless perceived as a threat? This chapter draws on the author’s work on humiliation studies, and other analyses of humiliation in the genocide-studies literature. It suggests that neither ethnic fault lines, nor dwindling resources or other “rational” conflicts of interest, nor simple scapegoating, nor any general “evilness” of human nature may lie at the heart of genocide. Rather, complex psychological mindsets and behavioral clusters operate according to their own “rationality.” These may entail acts of humiliation as a response to fear of humiliation – or, more precisely, to an imagined fear of future humiliations, based on past ones. Accordingly, genocide’s perpetrators may be drawn not only from elites, but also from a recently risen underclass exhibiting a complex web of features, sometimes labeled as an “inferiority complex.” These dynamics are relevant not only for genocide, but also for global terrorism and thus represent an important field of inquiry not only locally but also for global human security.
Contents:
Introduction
• 1. Symbolism and Subalternity: The 1680 Pueblo Revolt of New Mexico and the 1780-82 Andean Great Rebellion by Nicholas Robins
• 2. On the Genocidal Aspect of Certain Subaltern Uprisings: A Research Note by Adam Jones
• 3. Ethical Cleansing? The Expulsion of Germans from Central Europe during and after World War Two by Eric Langenbacher
• 4. Oppression and Vengeance in the Cambodian Genocide by Alexander Laban Hinton
• 5. Genocide in Self-Defense? Serbian Victimization and Historical Justifications for War, 1980-2000 byDavid B. MacDonald
• 6. The Imaginary in Rwanda's Pre-Genocidal Media by Christopher C. Taylor
• 7. Genocide, Humiliation, and Inferiority: An Interdisciplinary Perspective by Evelin Gerda Lindner
• 8. Subaltern Genocide and Evolutionary Theory by E.O. Smith
• 9. Subaltern Strands of the Genocidal Continuum by Adam Jones

Humiliation and Global Terrorism: How to Overcome It Nonviolently
In: Ralph V. Summy (Ed.), Nonviolent Alternatives for Social Change, in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS). Oxford, UK: Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, 2009, eISBN: 978-1-84826-220-1 (e-book), ISBN: 978-1-84826-670-4 (Print version).
Summary: Why do young people kill innocent citizens in suicide attacks? Clearly, poverty is as insufficient an explanation as is 'pure evil.' In this chapter, we offer humiliation as explanation - feelings of humiliation, leading to acts of humiliation, forming cycles of humiliation. Lindner has researched the phenomenon of humiliation in the genocidal killings in Rwanda (1994) and Somalia (1988), on the backdrop of Hitler Germany. She is currently in Japan, among others studying the 'kamikaze' pilots of World War II. The notion of non-violence is at the core of Lindner's theory of humiliation. Humiliation contrasts the term humility. We cannot achieve humbleness and humility by inflicting humiliation, particularly not in a world that is characterised by increasing interdependence and an ongoing human rights revolution. Rather than rendering peace, people who feel humiliated may set in motion new cycles of humiliation. Equal rights and dignity for all, as called for by the Human Rights Declaration, locally and globally, are only attainable by dignified non-violent approaches.

What Asia Can Contribute to World Peace: The Role of Dignity and Humiliation
Background text for two papers:
• How Asia Can Contribute to World Peace Psychology: The Role of Dignity and Humiliation. In Montiel, Cristina Jayme and Noor, Noraini (Eds.), The Theory and Practice of Peace Psychology in Asia. New York, NY: Springer Science and Business Media, 2008.
Peace and Dignity: More than the Absence of Humiliation - What We Can Learn From the Asia-Pacific Region. In The Australian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies: Occasional Papers Series, Brisbane, Australia: University of Queensland, Australian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies (ACPACS), after the author had spent one month (August 2007) at ACPACS and had given a lecture on The Role of Dignity and Humiliation for Peace and Conflict Studies on 14th August 2007 (please see pictures). Since the Occasional Papers Series closed down in December 2009, this paper was being published on this website in 2009.

Why There Can Be No Conflict Resolution as Long as People Are Being Humiliated
with the short version of a response by Finn Tschudi and a rejoinder by the author, see here the long version of A review by Finn Tschudi & Evelin Lindner's responses, July and August 2008
In: International Review of Education, Special Issue on Education for Reconciliation and Conflict Resolution edited by Birgit Brock-Utne, Volume 55 (2-3, May): 157-184, 2009, published in OnlineFirst on 27th December 2008, with DOI 10.1007/s11159-008-9125-9, and ISSN 0020-8566 (Print) and 1573-0638 (Online). Published by Springer (Dordrecht), with the original publication available at www.springerlink.com.
brockutne•  Abstract: This paper discusses how conflict resolution and reconciliation, in their interplay with emotions, are embedded into two current trends: the transition toward increasing global interdependence, and the call for equal dignity for all. In a traditional world of ranked honour, humiliation is often condoned as a legitimate and useful tool - however, in terms of human rights it is seen as a violation of humanity. This article argues that the norms of equal dignity are worth supporting for two reasons: first, the human rights framework promotes quality of til, and second, it is the best way to tackle increasing global interdependence. Yet, there is a caveat. While feelings of humiliation in the face of debasing conditions are an important resource in that they emotionally "fuel" me human rights movement, they also represent what the author calls the "nuclear bomb of the emotions" that, if instrumentalised, can power cycles ofhumiliation and atrocities. Only if the implementation of human rights is approached hands-on and these feelings converted into Mandela-like social transformation to form a decent global village can the human rights movement fulfil its promise and humiliation be transcended.
•  Résume : « Pourquoi il ne peut y avoir aucune resolution d'un conflit tant que les gens sont humiliés »
- Cette étude discute de savoir comment, dans leur interaction avec les émotions, la résolution d'un conflit et la réconciliation sont incluses dans deux tendances actuelles: la transition vers une interdépendance globale croissante, et l'appel a une dignité égale pour tous. Dans un monde traditionnel de classification par les honneurs, 1’humiliation est souvent excusée comme étant un outil légitime et utile; cependant en termes de droits de l'homme, elle est vue comme une violation de l'humanité. Cet article soutient que ce la vaut la peine de soutenir les normes d'une égalité dans la dignité pour deux raisons: d’abord, le cadre des droits de l’homme favorise la qualité de vie, et en second lieu, il est mieux adapté pour s'attaquer a une interdépendance globale croissante. Cependant, il y a une opposition. Tandis que les sentiments d'humiliation face a des conditions rabaissantes sont une ressource importante, du fait qu’ils « nourrissent » émotionnellement le mouvement des droits de 1’homme ils représentent également ce que 1’auteur appelle « la bombe nucléaire des émotions » qui, si elle est instrumentalisée, peut alimenter des cycles d'humiliation et d'atrocités, C'est uniquement si une approche main dans la main des droits de l’homme est accomplie et si ces sentiments sont convertis en une transformation sociale façon Mandela pour former un village global décent, que le mouvement de droits de l'homme peut accomplir sa promesse et l'humiliation être dépassée.
•  Zusammenfassung – „Warum Konfliktlösung nicht möglich ist, solange Menschen gedemütigt werden“ – Dieser Artikel befasst sich damit, dass Konfliktlösung und Versöhnung in ihrer Wechselwirkung mit Gefühlen derzeit von zwei Entwicklungstrends geprägt sind: der zunehmenden internationalen Verflechtung und der Forderung nach gleicher Würde für alle. In von Traditionen geprägten Kulturen, in denen Ehre einen hohen Stellenwert hat, werden Demütigungen häufig als legitimes, nützliches Instrument gebilligt. In Bezug auf die Menschenrechte betrachtet man sie jedoch als Verstoß gegen die Menschlichkeit. In diesem Artikel wird die Ansicht vertreten, dass der Grundsatz der gleichen Würde für alle aus zwei Gründen unterstutzt werden sollte: Zum einen fördern die Menschenrechte die Lebensqualität, zum anderen kann man mit ihrer Hilfe besser mit der zunehmenden internationalen Verflechtung zurechtkommen. Es besteht jedoch auch eine gewisse Gefahr: Gefühle der Erniedrigung angesichts entwürdigender Umstande sind insofern ein bedeutendes Instrument, als sie die Menschenrechtsbewegung ,,anheizen’’. Gleichzeitig stellen sie jedoch mit den Worten der Autorin eine ,,Atombombe der Gefühle’’ dar, die Kreisläufe von Demütigung und Grausamkeiten antreiben kann, wenn man sie instrumentalisiert. Nur wenn die Umsetzung der Menschenrechte aktiv angegangen wird und diese Gefühle nach Art von Mandela in gesellschaftlichen Wandel gelenkt werden und ein lebenswertes globales Dorf entsteht, kann die Menschenrechtsbewegung ihr Versprechen einlösen und die Demütigung überwunden werden.

The Relevance of Humiliation Studies for the Prevention of Terrorism
In: Thomas M. Pick, Speckhard, Anne, and Beatrice Jacuch (Eds.), Home-Grown Terrorism: Understanding and Addressing the Root Causes of Radicalisation among Groups with an Immigrant Heritage in Europe, Section 3.1: The Societal Subsoil Nurturing Intolerant Militancy and Terrorism, as Against Measures and Processes Nurturing Tolerance, Section 3.1, pp. 163-188, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, supported by the NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme, E: Human and Societal Dynamics, Vol. 60, 2009.
Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop Indigenous Terrorism: Understanding and Addressing the Root Causes of Radicalisation Among Groups with an Immigrant Heritage in Europe, Budapest, Hungary, 7-9th March, 2008.
Please see here a long first draft of this paper, and see also some pictures of the event.
pick• Abstract: Why do young people who grew up in Europe kill innocent citizens in suicide attacks? In her paper, the author makes a link between the deep structure of terrorism and genocide, and offers humiliation as an explanation for both - feelings of humiliation, which carry the potential to lead to acts of humiliation and cycles of humiliation.
Current historic times are characterised by two historically novel trends, first, rapidly increasing global interdependence, and second, a growing impact of the human rights message. Furthermore, new research indicates that one can feel as humiliated on behalf of victims one identifies with, as if one were to suffer this pain oneself, a phenomenon that is magnified when media give access to the suffering of people in far-flung places. Human rights ideals also compound this effect because humiliation represents the core violation of the human rights ideal of equality in dignity for all human beings. In the context of globalisation and human rights, therefore, humiliating people no longer produces humble underlings but risks fostering angry 'terrorists,' who have yet to realise that equal rights and dignity for all can only be attained by non-humiliating means. The Nelson-Mandela path out of humiliation, namely his strategy of embarking on proactive constructive social change instead of re-active cycles of humiliation, requires the nurturing, locally and globally, of a social and societal climate of mature differentiation, embedded into respect for the equality in dignity of all.
Contents:
General Introduction, by Thomas M. Pick, Anne Speckhardt and Beatrice Jacuch, v-ix
Section 1: Terrorism and/or Radicalisation in Special Areas and Populations
• Islamism: The Process of Identity Formation, Latéfa Belarouci, pp. 3-17
• Pathways to Jihad. Radicalisation and the Case of Pakistan: A Way Forward?, by Laila Bokhari, pp. 18-31
• Radicalisation and Deradicalisation: Dutch Experiences, by Albert Jongman, 32-50
• Police and Muslim Communities in London: Countering Al-Quaida Influence and Islamophobia, by Robert Lambert, pp. 51-73
• Decreasing Violence in Saudi Arabia and Beyond, by Sherifa Zuhur, pp. 74-100
Section 2: Emergence and Organisationof Terrorism
• Radicalization: What Does It Mean?, by David R. Mandel, pp. 101-113
• Reading Their Lips: The Credibility of Militant Jihadi Web Sites as 'Soft Power' in the War of the Minds, by Reuven Paz, pp. 114-126
• Political Warfare, the Muslim Brotherhood, and the Targeting of America, by Peter S. Probst, pp. 127-133
• Al-Quaeda's Radicalization Doctrine: Concept and Execution, by Yoram Schweitzer and Sean London, pp. 134-142
• The Militant Jidad in Europe: Fighting Home-Grown Terrorism, by Anne Speckhard, pp. 143-160
Section 3. The Societal Subsoil Nurturing Intolerant Militancy and Terrorism, as Against Measures and Processes Nurturing Tolerance
• The Relevance of Humiliation Studies for the Prevention of Terrorism, by Evelin G. Lindner, pp. 163-188
• Beyond Competing Identities and Ideologies: Building Resilience to Radicalization in a World in Transition, by Elena Mustakova-Possardt, pp. 189-206
• Societal Fit and Radicalisation: Poorly Managed Absorption of Immigrants and Poor Fit Between the Society of Origin and the Host Society as Predisposition Factors to Radicalisation, by Thomas M. Pick, pp. 207-226
• The Cycle of Righteous Killing: Psychological Forces in Its Prevention and the Promotion of Peace, by Tom Pyszczynski, Kenneth E. Vail III and Matthew S. Motyl, pp. 227-243
• Religious Metaphors in Political Discourse: Examples from the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, by Vera Kattermann, pp. 258-264
Epilogue, by Thomas M. Pick, pp. 265-267

The Need for a New World
Paper shared at the 2008 Workshop on Humiliation and Violent Conflict, Columbia University, New York City, December 11-12, 2008
• Abstract: We live in times of crisis. This paper is a conceptual paper, aiming at exposing the core patterns that can help us build a new world. It views the required changes against the backdrop of a larger geo-historical context.
This paper points out that when old paradigms fall, space opens for a new future. This space has to be filled constructively. “In times of change, the learners inherit the world, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists” (a saying attributed to Eric Hoffer).
After the demise of the Soviet Block and oppressive communism, we now witness the demise of the Western approach of maximizing victory and profit. Global interdependence represents the ultimate deterrent for power-over strategies – nobody can win durable “victories” over others in an interdependent world, everybody is vulnerable. Global interdependence also represents the ultimate deterrent to the idea that in a world that depends on a healthy ecological homeostasis, the maximization of single elements (for example, profit), is feasible. In this situation, only profound transformation will help, tinkering with symptoms is insufficient. Systemic change is overdue, locally, and, particularly, globally.
And this change must not be left to a few elites, but needs to be driven by as many of the world’s citizens as possible. This paper aims at contributing to creating a new vision for the future, together with nurturing global leaders who can carry it forward, and not just a few leaders, but many. It aims at outlining what kind of global system we need that would not just address crises in an ad-hoc fashion, but prevent them – at least the human-made ones – from occurring in the future.
This paper posits that we, as humankind, need to transform everything, from the philosophical foundations we stand on, to the core guidelines we employ, the definitions we forge, the institutions we build, and the cultural and social practices we teach our children. What is particularly pressing it the creation of new superordinate global institutions.
The paper is structured along the lines of these changes. As to the philosophical foundations, the nondualistic principle of Unity in Diversity is what this paper advocates. As to core guidelines and definitions, it is suggested that we must learn to focus on interest, not on position, and on output, not on input. As to institutions, and the cultural and social practices we teach our children, giving priority to communal sharing is recommended. Subsidiarity is put forward as suitable guideline for combining communal sharing with elements of market economy into new layers of local and global institutions. To bring about these changes and grasp the opportunities that typically are entailed in crisis, it is suggested that women and men recalibrate their contributions to society.
This paper describes a vision of an alternative future, a vision that aims to motivate us to strive for its realization and overcome the obstacles that wait on this path.

Disasters As a Chance to Implement Novel Solutions that Highlight Attention to Human Dignity
Contribution as Panelist to the International Conference on Rebuilding Sustainable Communities for Children and their Families after Disasters, convened by Adenrele Awotona, at the College of Public and Community Service University of Massachusetts at Boston, U.S.A., November 16-19, 2008. See all presenters. Please see "Conference Examines Ways to Rebuild after Disasters" on page 5 of the University Reporter for an article about the conference. It makes reference to my contribution. See also pictures.
• Abstract: The sustainability of social cohesion and ecological survival for humankind requires a focus on human dignity, implemented with a mindset of cooperation and humility, rather than disrespect and humiliation. Evelin G. Lindner, a social scientist with an interdisciplinary orientation, is the Founding Director and President of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies (HumanDHS), a global transdisciplinary fellowship of academics and practitioners who wish to promote dignity and transcend humiliation. The idea for this network emerged in 2001, and has since grown to ca. 1,000 personally invited members from all over the world, with the website being read by ca. 40, 000 people from 183 countries per year.
HumanDHS researchers and practitioners attempt to create public awareness for the destructive effects of humiliation, and to promote alternative approaches that generate and embody human dignity and respect.
The central human rights message is expressed in Article 1 of the of the Human Rights Declaration, which states that every human being is born with equal dignity (and ought not be humiliated). This ideal requires concerted action to be implemented, not just in the field of legal regulations, but in every sphere of human life, including architecture and the way we create our built environments, and including disaster management.
After disasters, communities are prone to suffer violations of dignity in numerous ways. However, disasters can also open space for the implementation of novel solutions that highlight attention to human dignity. For example, victims of disasters can be encouraged to become co-creators of interventions, rather than merely recipients of help (research indicates that receiving help can have humiliating effects). Since disasters disrupt established life, they even entail the potential to open more space for empowerment than was present prior to the event.
Disasters unmask in stark ways the short-comings of human interventions in general, be it with regard to management philosophies (in case of disasters, for example, how aid is being delivered), or how housing is designed (in the case of disasters, for example, how emergency shelters are being built), or how short-term and long-term planning is interwoven (in the case of disasters, whether humanitarian emergency aid is being integrated with longer-term development goals).
Many short-comings are related to a lack of attention to human rights, not just their legal aspects, but the spirit of human rights, namely equality in dignity for all. Human interventions in society in general, as well as approaches to disaster intervention, often stem from times when sensitivity to the notion of equality in dignity was still weak. Sometimes this lack of sensitivity is overtly visible, at other times notions such as “expertise,” “efficiency,” or “practicability,” cover up for, or “justify” violations of human rights and human dignity.
One brief example: Obsessive rectangularity and military uniformity, for example, when shelters are built or aid is offered, are often being justified with arguments of efficiency and practicability, or with the argument that recipients of help should be happy with what they get. However, these are obsolete arguments. A helpless person, struggling to heal and build a new life, cannot be expected to improve if his or her basic individuality is removed and humiliated into helpless uniformity. The loss of diversity is not a small loss. Human beings are living creatures, meaning that they are living beings who thrive on diverse environments. Individual human identity and health depend not least on diversity markers. Uniformity ignores this human need, relegating human beings to the humiliating status of machines.
International organizations, accustomed to responding to emergencies and developmental needs, must develop concepts of efficiency and practicability that nurture inclusive and dignifying diversity. Today the term mainstreaming permeates many discourses: The spirit of human rights, the emphasis on human dignity, needs to be mainstreamed also in disaster management.

What the World’s Cultures Can Contribute to Creating a Sustainable Future for Humankind
Oslo: Paper presented at the 11th Annual Conference of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies (HumanDHS), 23th June-1st July 2008, in Norway.
• Abstract: Contemporary Norway has a unique traditional notion of likeverd (equality in dignity) and is a strong global peace mediator. The Nobel Peace Prize is being awarded in Oslo each year, the Oslo Accords come to mind, or Norway 's recent engagement in Sri Lanka.
What is peace? Clearly, peace is more than resolved conflict. A sustainable future for humankind is more than 'resilience' within the status quo. In an interdependent world, security, peace, and sustainability are no longer attainable by solving singular conflicts, or through 'keeping enemies out or subjugated,' only through 'keeping a fragmented world together' to jointly embark on comprehensive solutions for the problems of its sociosphere and biosphere.
What can the world's cultures contribute to a sustainable future for all? This paper inquires whether it is possible to distil out what large cultural realms such as Africa, Asia, Continental Europe, and the Anglo-Saxon sphere can contribute.
If our aim is the pro-active creation of global cohesion informed by equality in dignity - instead of passively waiting for global division to tear us apart - then, so suggests this paper, traditional Asia can contribute with its notions of nondualism and harmony. This would need to be carefully combined, with, for example, American-Anglo-Saxon emphasis on courageous action, and Continental European strength in planning and design. This in turn would need to be inspired by all nondualistic, dignifying, and philia-promoting philosophies from around the world, be it Egyptian or Greek notions of love, African Ubuntu, Martin Buber's 'dialogical unity' in I and Thou, or Gandhi's non-violent action approach.
The paper concludes by calling for global systemic change in the spirit of nondualistic Unity in Diversity, sustained through continuous pro-active maintenance of harmonious global social cohesion imbued with the notion of likeverd. We need to realise an 'era of equality in dignity,' a decent future, where everybody can live a dignified life. We need to create a decent global village. Norway, with its unique background, plays an important role that it needs to expand for the common good of humankind.

Beginning to Understand the Causes of Conflicts and Terrorism – and Finding Ways to Transcend Them
In: Atle Hetland (Ed.), Creativity: With Pakistani Children’s Drawings. Islamad: Pakistan - Norway Association (PANA): An International Friendship Association in Pakistan, 2008.
• First Paragraph: Humiliation and loss of dignity: Feelings of humiliation are the main cause for conflicts and terrorism. Feelings of debasement may lead to acts of humiliation perpetrated on the perceived humiliator, setting off cycles of humiliation in which everybody who is involved feels denigrated and is convinced that humiliating the humiliator is a just and holy duty. The word humiliation has to do with ‘putting down’. It originates from the Latin word ‘humus’, which means ‘earth’.

Futility of Armed Conflict: The Role of Dignity and Humiliation
In: Seema Shekhawat, and Debidatta Aurobinda Mahapatra (Eds.), Afro-Asian Conflicts: Costs, Consequences and Changing Contours, chapter 2, pp. 18-34, New Delhi, India: New Century Publications, 2008. See the original version of the chapter.
• Abstract: This chapter argues that a new concept of Realpolitik is currently emerging and has to be developed more succinctly. Old Realpolitik was defined by fear, collective fear of attack from outgroups, informed by the so-called security dilemma (a term used in international relations theory). In this context, armed conflict was accepted, both practically and normatively. The human and material cost of armed conflict was regarded as necessary price to pay for victory.
In contrast, the new concept of Realpolitik should take into account that the reality of the world has changed. In a world that grows ever more interdependent, human rights replace the old definition of security, which is ‘keeping enemies out, and underlings down,’ with a new definition. The new definition reads, ‘integrating all humankind in a world of equal dignity for all.’ In the new context, armed conflict is a recipe for the demise of all parties, no longer for the victory of one side. In the new context, armed conflict is therefore neither utile nor acceptable, be it practically or normatively.
Contents:
Part 1: Theoretical Framework
• Chapter 1 – Conflicts, Costs and the Afro-Asian Context by Seema Shekhawat and Debidatta Aurobinda Mahapatra p. 3
• Chapter 2 – Futility of Armed Conflict: The Role of Dignity and Humiliation by Evelin G. Lindner p. 18
•  Chapter 3 – Long War and Long Peace in Northern Ireland by Neil Jarman
Part II: The Asian Context p. 35
•  Chapter 4 – Challenges of Ethno-Nationalism in Balochistan by Aasim Sajjad Akhtar p. 63
•  Chapter 5 – Maoist Insurgency of Nepal: Context, Cost and Consequences by Manish Thapa p. 78
•  Chapter 6 – Justice or Reconciliation?: Prospects and Problems for Peacebuilding in Cambodia by Mneesha Gellman p. 101
•  Chapter 7 – Causes and Consequences of Ethno - Political Conflict in Sri Lanka by Nirmanusan Balasundaram p. 128
•  Chapter 8 - Kashmir Conflict: Causes, Costs and Prospects of Peace by Debidatta Aurobinda Mahapatra and Shailender Shekhawat p. 147
•  Chapter 9 – Transcending Conflicts: Challenges and Hopes for Peace in the Philippines by Virginia F. Cawagas, Toh Swee-Hin and Ofelia Durante p. 164
Part III: The African Context
•  Chapter 10 –Rwandan Genocide: Sociological, Economic and Psychological Consequences by Jean-Damascène Gasanabo p. 193
•  Chapter 11 – Congo in Crisis: Violent Conflict and its Consequences by Seema Shekhawat p. 217
•  Chapter 12 – Kenya in Crisis: Causes and Consequences of the Post December 2007 Election Conflict by Kennedy Agade Mkutu p. 235
•  Chapter 13 – The Sierra Leone Conflict: Liberation or Incarceration? by Zinurine Alghali p. 252
•  Chapter 14 – Darfur Conflict: Costs and Politics by Seema Shekhawat p. 272

Humiliation
In: William A. Darity Jr. (Editor), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (IESS), Second Edition (9 Volumes, ISBN 9780028659657), Volume 3, page 521, Detroit, MI: © 2008 Macmillan Reference USA / Thomson Gale, a part of Cengage Learning, Inc. Reproduced by permission (www.cengage.com/permissions), 2008.
darityThe all-new International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2nd Edition, is the successor to Macmillan Reference USA’s Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (1935) and the first edition of the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (1968) — two landmark references that “established standards for knowledge in social science research and practice” (Choice, 2001). This entirely new second edition expands the scope of the original, covering scholarship and fields that have emerged and matured since its initial publication.
With nearly 3,000 new articles contributed by thousands of international scholars and several Nobel Prize winners, including Roger B. Myerson, 2007 co-winner of the Nobel Prize in economics, this new edition is essential to research and study in the disciplines of sociology, political science, economics, anthropology, psychology and other fields.

Ydmykelse, ydmykhet og demokrati
Andre utgave 2013: Bernt Hagtvet (red.), Nikolai Brandal (red.), Dag Einar Thorsen (red.), Folkemordenes svarte bok, kapittel 3, s. 40-58, 2013, Oslo: Universitetsforlag. ISBN: 9788215020884
Første utgave 2008: Bernt Hagtvet (red.), Folkemordenes svarte bok: Politisk massevold og systematiske menneskerettsbrudd i det 20. århundret, kapittel 6, s. 113-130, 2008, Oslo: Universitetsforlag. Se lansering.
Innholdsfortegnelse:
• Forord. Bernt Hagtvet
I: Innledning. Den farlige renhetslengselen. Bernt Hagtvet
II: En ny type forbrytelse: Genocidet. En artikkel i Samtiden 1945. Raphael Lemkin
III: Begreper og fellestrekk
• Folkemord: Noen medisinske og psykologiske aspekter. Nils Johan Lavik
• Folkemord: En juridisk og politisk begrepsanalyse. Ida Waal
• Underliggende ideologiske momenter i folkemord: Fra Armenia til Øst-Timor. Ben Kiernan
• Ydmykelse, ydmykhet og demokrati. Evelin Lindner
IV: Fra Namibia til Rwanda
• Utslettelsen av Hererofolket i Nambia 1903-1908: Det første folkemordet i det 20. århundre. Tore Linné Eriksen
• Etnisk rensing, massakre og folkemord i det ottomanske rikets siste dager. Hva skjedde med den armenske minoriteten 1915-18. Ragnar Næss
• Stalins etniske terror: Rasisme eller Raison d’etat? Pål Kolstø
• GULAG-imperiet: Et folkemord glemt av den politiske korrekthet. Bent Jensen
• Tilintetgjørelsen av de europeiske jødene: Nyere tema og teorihorisonter. Odd-Bjørn Fure
• Terror under det totale herredømmet: Nazi-Tyskland og Stalins USSR i sammenligning. Morten A. Iversen
• Sigøynerne: Forfulgt i århundrer. Jahn Otto Johansen
• Kjapt, effektivt og billig: Gjensyn med de indonesiske massedrapene på kommunister 1965-66. Olle Törnqvist
• Den kambodsjanske tragedien og kampen om oppgjøret: Nasjonal eller internasjonal rettsforfølgelse? Ellen Stensrud
• Etnisk rensing i det tidligere Jugoslavia. Hvorfor ble oppløsningen så blodig? Svein Mønnesland
• Rwanda: Folkemordet verden valgte å ignorere. Thea Ottman
• Krig, folkemord og motstand i Øst Timor. Ben Kiernan
• Darfur: Den brente jords taktikk. Rapport fra en forbrytelse mot menneskeheten. Jan Egeland
V: Endlösung i Norge
• ”Nøye måtte fastslå hvem som er å regne som jøde...”: Deportasjonene av jøder fra Norge under krigen. Bjarte Bruland
• Antisemittismen i norsk historie. Hans Fredrik Dahl
• Ondskapens ”banalitet” her hjemme? Tilintetgjørelsesleirene i Nord-Norge: Gjensyn med en studie av fangevokterne. Nils Christie
• Oppgjøret med kontorbødlene: Historien om erstatningsoppgjøret til norske jødiske medborgere. Bjørn Westlie
VI: Erindringspolitikk
• Minnet om den radikale ondskap: Om fortidsbearbeiding og lidelsens pedagogikk. Trond Risto Nilssen
• Folkemord og det kollektive minnet: Om bruk og misbruk av historia om vald og liding. Nik. Brandal
VII: Oppsummering/Konklusjon
• Folkemord og massevold: forutsetninger og ettervirkninger, forebygging og oppgjør. Nik Brandal, Ellen Stensrud, Dag Einar Thorsen
• Epilog: Folkemord skjer igjen - i går og nå. Janne Haaland Matlary

Humiliation, Trauma, and Trauma Recovery in a Globalizing World
In: Barry Hart (Ed.), Peacebuilding for Traumatized Societies, chapter 3, pp. 49-64, Lanham, MD, and Boulder, New York, Toronto, Plymouth, UK: University Press of America, 2008. See the original long version of the chapter.
•  Introduction to Evelin's chapter: Yesterday, I met with a dear friend, a Japanese professor, an expert on mediation. She explained to me that she believes that humankind will not survive, at least not in the longer term. Humankind will die out, leaving behind a devastated planet Earth, relieved of its human plague. And, she added, it is absurd to write chapters about Peacebuilding for Traumatized Societies, while forgetting that we all, including all trauma experts and all readers of books for trauma experts, are doomed and ought to be thinking what to do with traumatized death-bound humankind, us, during our last days...
Contents:
• Introduction
Part I: Theoretical Frameworks
• Critical Links between Peacebuilding and Trauma Healing: A Holistic Framework for Fostering Community Development by Riva Kantowitz and Abikök Riak
• Managing Memory: Looking to Transitional Justice to Address Trauma by Judy Barsalou
• Humiliation, Trauma, and Trauma Recovery in a Globalizing World by Evelin G. Lindner
• Trauma, Identity and Security: How the U.S. Can Recover from 9/11 Using Media Arts and a 3D Approach to Human Security by Lisa Schirch
• Peacebuilidng Leadership in Traumatized Societies by Barry Hart
Part II: Merging Theory and Practice
• Psychological Recovery, Reconciliation and the Prevention of New Violence: An Approach and Its Uses in Rwanda by Ervin Stuab, Laurie Anne Pearlman, Rezarta Bilali
• The Contribution of Trauma Healing to Peacebuilding in Southeast Europe by Amela Puljek-Shank and Randall Puljek Shank
• Arts Approaches to Peace: Playing Our Way to Transcendence? by Babu Ayindo
• A Post-Genocidal Justic e of Blessing as an Alternative to a Justice of Violence: The Case of Rwanda by Vern Neufeld Redekop
• The Role of Religious Peacebuilders in Traumatized Societies: From Withdrawl to Forgiveness by Mohammed Abu-Nimer
Part III: Trauma Healing in Croatia, Columbia and Australia
• Daring to Dream: Learning about Community Trauma, Accountability and Building the Future in Post-War Forums in Croatia by Arlene Audergon
• Opening Space for Healing in Colombia by Bonnie Klassen
• Healing Trauma among Australia's 'Stolen Generations' by John Bond
• The Way Forward: Policy Development and Implementation by Barry Hart

The Educational Environment as a Place for Humiliating Indoctrination or Dignifying Empowerment
In: Raja Ganesan Dakshinamoorthi and Philip M. Brown (Eds.), Humiliation in the Academic Setting: A Special Symposium Issue of 'Experiments in Education', New Delhi: S.I.T.U. Council of Educational Research, XXXVI (3, March 2008), pp. 61-70.
•  Abstract: This article addresses the way the educational environment has contributed to the manipulation of young students to perpetrate atrocities. In Japan, it was the quest of young brilliant students for aesthetics, beauty, meaning and their sincerity and dedication that was manipulated so as to make them 'volunteer' to die as suicide pilots. In Rwanda, academia was also involved in instigating genocide. 'Africa 's Murderous Professors' is the title of an article describing how scholars paved the way for genocide. Radio Mille Collines blasted genocidal propaganda into the air. The entire society was mobilised, and academia was deeply implicated in efforts to promote ethnic cleansing.
It is suggested that it is a fundamental responsibility to protect children, students and societies in the future from being manipulated into perpetrating mayhem. Educators should consider it a critical aspect of their work to empower students to enable them to resist manipulation. But first we must understand how manipulation works in the context of a true telling of our histories. Do we realize to what extent atrocities were introduced as 'noble duty'? Do we know about the humiliating effect of duping people into perpetrating atrocities?

Health and Illness in Relation to Dignity and Humiliation in Times of Global Interdependence
In: E-Newsletter of Solidarity, Sustainability, and Non-Violence, Luis Teodoro Gutierrez (Editor), 4 (6, June), 2008. See Pdf.
• Introduction to Evelin's article: This article has two goals. The first is to go beyond a mere account of the History of Medicine, despite its many interesting facets, and present a provocative scholarly discussion of definitions of medical health and illness by using a wider lens, both historically and conceptually. The second is to bring about a miracle in the reader. This study is designed to persuade and mobilize the reader, to widen the definition of personal health to include the health and well-being of the global human family and the human biosphere...

The Evolving Family: Giving Life to the Human Family
In: The Offerings Book on Women and Birthing, Chapter Two, pp. 38-41, 2007.
Please see a long version of this paper, written in 2006.
•  Introduction to the long version of Evelin's chapter: This is not an academic paper. It is a very personal text that tries to capture the struggles of my life in ways that embed them into larger historical contexts and filter out "lessons" that could be useful for others. It is a analysis of my life, which responds to the questions put to me by the Journal Offerings (the headings represent their questions).
This text is written particularly for the "Galileos" of our time. He was condemned for heresy by the Inquisition. His heliocentric view, meaning that not the Sun revolves around the Earth, but the other way round, was too humiliating a concept for the Church to accept. It took the Church more than 300 years to regret their conduct towards Galileo. He spent his last years in house arrest, writing his finest book Two New Sciences.
What I want to highlight with this example, is how the "Galileos" among us ought to tackle rejection. We are glad that Galileo did not descend into depression and apathy. Neither did he spend his precious time and energy on finger-pointing and indignation entrepreneurship. He did not allow the rejection he experienced to derail his life project. Instead, he kept his hands on the task, calmly and constructively.
I would like to encourage the "Galileos" of our time to follow Galileo's example. I would be very happy if the account of my personal experiences in this text helps our "Galileos" to avoid losing time and energy as I did. I "lost" several decades of my life because I did not sufficiently understand my situation within the historical juncture at which humankind finds itself at the current historical point in time.

Introductory Presentation to the 2007 Workshop on Humiliation and Violent Conflict, Columbia University, New York City, December 13-14, 2007
See a transcription of the first part of this talk.
This talk had two parts, related to Lindner's two roles. Her first role is to be the principal convener of this workshop and our overall HumanDHS network, together with Linda Hartling. Her second role is to be one HumanDHS researcher among many other HumanDHS researchers. Respectively, the first part of her talk addressed the overall aim of our HumanDHS work, while the second part gave a very brief introduction to her theory of humiliation. She uses a particularly broad lens, both with respect to the length of history (entire history of Homo sapiens) she includes, as well as with respect to its transcultural approach. Her theory highlights how globalization is interlinked with new and unprecedented psychological dynamics (unprecedented significance of the phenomenon of humiliation) that call for novel solutions at all levels - macro, meso and micro levels, and in all fields of public policy.
Please see early versions of the second part, Humiliation in a Globalizing World: Does Humiliation Become the Most Disruptive Force? here or at http://ssrn.com/abstract=668742 (this paper's SSRN ID is 668742); see a more recent version in the first issue of the Journal of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, March 2007.

Dynamics of Humiliation in a Globalizing World
In: International Journal on World Peace, XXXIV (3, September), 2007, pp. 15-52.
Original title: Dynamics of Humiliation in a Globalizing World: From Old to New Realpolitik.
•  Abstract: This article argues that a new concept of Realpolitik has to be developed. Old Realpolitik was defined by fear, collective fear of attack from outgroups, informed by the so-called security dilemma. In contrast, the new concept of Realpolitik should take into account the new normative system that currently gains mainstream acceptance in a globalizing world, namely human rights. Human rights replace fear with feelings of humiliation, felt by individuals in response to failing respect for equal dignity. If unattended, feelings of humiliation can hamper an otherwise benign transition towards a more comprehensive implementation of human rights. Peace advocates are called upon to take up primary responsibility to clarify and guide this transition in a constructive and transdisciplinary fashion.

The Role of Dignity and Humiliation for Peace & Conflict Studies
Australian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, Don Carruthers Room, Level 5, Dorothy Hill PSE Library, Hawken Building (50) (Enter library and take lift to Level 5), at K5 co-ordinates, 14th of August, 2007, 12-2pm.
Abstract: This seminar is about humiliation, globalization, human rights, and dignity. The central question is the following: Could it be the case in a globalizing world in which people are increasingly exposed to human rights advocacy, that acts of humiliation and feelings of humiliation emerge as the most significant phenomena to resolve? This seminar suggests that this is the case. It claims that the citizens of this world share a common ground, namely a yearning for recognition and respect that connects them and draws them into relationships. The seminar argues that many of the observable rifts among people may stem from the humiliation that is felt when recognition and respect are lacking. The seminar proposes that only if the human desire for respect is cherished, respected, and nurtured, and if people are attributed equal dignity in this process, can differences turn into valuable diversities and sources of enrichment-both globally and locally-instead of sources of disruption.

How the Human Rights Ideal of Equal Dignity Separates Humiliation from Shame
Written for the Journal of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, in 2007
Please see the first draft here.
Abstract: Usually, science, at least until recently, has been dominated by Western scholars. Therefore, much research is situated in Western cultural contexts. A Western scholar typically begins research within his or her own cultural setting and then makes some allowances for historic and cultural variations. In the case of research on emotions, the focus is usually on affect, feeling, emotion, script, character and personality, while larger cultural contexts and an analysis of historic periods in human history are less emphasized. Dialogue and bridge-building with other academic fields and other cultural realms are not easy to achieve even in today’s increasingly connected world.
The author of this article has lived as a global citizen for more than thirty years (due to being born into a displaced family) and has thus acquired an understanding not just for one or two cultural realms, but for many. The result is that she paints a broad picture that includes historic and transcultural dimensions. In this article the usual approach is inversed: Larger cultural contexts as they were shaped throughout human history are used as a lens to understand emotions, with particular emphasis, in this article, on humiliation and shame. This is not to deny the importance of research on affect, feeling, emotion, script, character and personality, but to expand it.
Subsequent to the conclusion of the doctoral dissertation on humiliation in 2001, the author has expanded her studies, among others, in Europe, South East Asia, and the United States. She is currently building a theory of humiliation that is transcultural and transdisciplinary, entailing elements from anthropology, history, social philosophy, social psychology, sociology, and political science.
The central point of this article is that shame and humiliation are not a-historic emotional processes, but historical-cultural-social-emotional constructs that change over time. Humiliation began to separate out from the humility-shame-humiliation continuum around three hundred years ago, and there are two mutually excluding concepts of humiliation in use today around the world, one that is old, and one that is new.

The Concept of Human Dignity
Chapter written in 2006 for a book to be edited by Noelle Quénivet and and Horst Fischer, which ultimately was not published (Human dignity: Concepts, challenges and solutions. The case of Africa, edited by Horst Fischer, and Noelle Quénivet. Berlin: Berliner Wissenschaftsverlag, 2008). Published on this web site in 2007.
•  Introduction: Let me begin this chapter by throwing the reader into the midst of controversy: Until 1991, I worked as a clinical psychologist (in the Middle East 1984-1991, among others), and was confronted with many complicated cases, including what is called honour killing. Imagine, a mother approaches you and explains that her daughter was raped and has to be killed to prevent family honour from being humiliated since the rapist will not marry her. As a human rights defender, you stipulate that marrying a raped girl off to her rapist, let alone killing the girl, is equivalent to compounding humiliation, not remedying it. The mother, in turn, regards your attitude as condescending, as humiliating her cultural beliefs. In sum, you face several layers of honour, dignity and humiliation. What position do you take? Whose honour or dignity do you protect? And which arguments do you use?...

Avoiding Humiliation - From Intercultural Communication to Global Interhuman Communication
In: Journal of Intercultural Communication, SIETAR Japan, Number 10, June 2007, pp. 21-38.
SIETAR•  See also the invitation to a lecture with the same title given for the Society for Intercultural Education, Training and Research (SIETAR) Japan, 9th June 2006, 7:00-9:00 pm, Reitaku University Tokyo Kenkyu Center (Shinjuku i-Land Tower, 4th Floor)
•  Please see here a draft for this lecture.
•  Please click here to see pictures from this lecture.
•  See the interview with Tim Newfields in the SIETAR Japan Newsletter, Fall 2006, pp. 26-27.
•  Abstract: Intercultural communication has the potential to fertilize transformative learning due to its power to unsettle us. This article suggests that we may go beyond being unsettled ourselves and let the very field of intercultural communication be unsettled. This article puts forward the proposal to inscribe intercultural communication into global interhuman communication. We suggest founding a new field, the field of “Global Interhuman Communication.”...

In Times of Globalization and Human Rights: Does Humiliation Become the Most Disruptive Force?
In: Journal of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2007 (initially published on the site of The United Nations mandated University for Peace (UPEACE), www.humiliationstudies.upeace.org/, now published here).
•  Abstract: This article is about humiliation, globalization, human rights, and dignity. The central question is the following: Could it be the case in a globalizing world in which people are increasingly exposed to human rights advocacy, that acts of humiliation and feelings of humiliation emerge as the most significant phenomena to resolve? This paper suggests that this is the case. It claims that all humans share a common ground, namely a yearning for recognition and respect that connects them and draws them into relationships. The paper argues that many of the observable rifts among people may stem from the humiliation that is felt when recognition and respect are lacking. The article proposes that only if the human desire for respect is cherished, respected, and nurtured, and if people are attributed equal dignity in this process, can differences turn into valuable diversities and sources of enrichment—both globally and locally—instead of sources of disruption.

How Multicultural Discourses Can Help Construct New Meaning
Paper presented at the Second International Conference on Multicultural Discourses, 13-15th April 2007, Institute of Discourse and Cultural Studies, & Department of Applied Psychology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
Please see pictures.
•  Abstract: This paper discusses the ‘critical paradigm’ that guides the field of Multicultural Discourses, and it makes three points. First, it reflects on the larger historical context, into which the emergence of the critical paradigm is embedded. Second, it explains how feelings of humiliation have become the marker of the critical paradigm. Third, the point is made that giving voice to the voiceless is as important and potentially life-saving as protecting biodiversity, but that this endeavour ought to be carried forward as a joint effort and with caution. The paper concludes with a discussion as to how multicultural discourses can be instrumental to constructing meaning both for each world citizen individually, but also with respect to public policy planning. The field of Multicultural Discourses, its researchers and experts, carry a particular responsibility.

The Transition of the Link Between Humiliation and Mental Health: From Due Lowliness to Undue Humiliation
Lecture at the International Mental Health Professionals of Japan (IMHPJ) conference on March 17-18, 2007, in Kawaguchiko at Mount Fuji.
•  Please see some pictures.
•  Please see also International Mental Health Professionals in Japan: Challenges and Opportunities, by Carolyn Zerbe Enns, PhD & Jim McRae, PhD, International Mental Health Professionals Japan (IMHPJ), in Psychology International (May-June 2007).
•  Abstract: We live in times of transition. Globalization and the human rights revolution push the world toward increasing global interdependence and a vision of more equal dignity for all. Mental health - how we live it, how we define it - is part of this transition...

Psychological Factors in Euro-Arab Relations
Lecture as part of the pilot course "Young Swedish Muslim Peace Agents," 19th-27th January 2007, at the Swedish Institute, with Director Jan Henningsson, in Alexandria, Egypt.
•  Please see some pictures.
•  Introduction: The Pilot Course "Young Swedish Muslim Peace Agents," took place in Alexandria, Egypt at the Swedish Institute in Alexandria, 19th-27th January 2007. A group of fifteen young Muslims from Sweden, who had formed the organisation Fredsargenterna, were the participants. The program of Fredsagenterna indicates that they wish to "increase the knowledge about an Islamic peace culture among young Swedish Muslims." I believe that Fredsagenterna's goal is extremely important not only for peace within Swedish society, but for the wider world. With this paper I wish to make an attempt to underpin this goal with my reflections.
I had the privilege to listen in for almost two days and wrote the first draft for this paper during the night before I had my talk on 22 nd January, being inspired by the presentations and the discussions. I had the particular pleasure to have my talk after the impressive presentation that Hans Blix gave...

Humiliation, War, and Gender: 'Worse than Death: Humiliating Words'
In: New Routes: A Journal for Peace Research and Action. Special Issue: Gender Perspectives, 11 (4), 2006, pp. 15-18, www.life-peace.org/newroutes.
•  Introduction to Evelin's article: Currently, both, honor and equal dignity are cultural concepts that are significant for people worldwide. What we see today is the transition from norms of honor to norms of equal dignity but also the clash and incompatibility of these concepts. When fear of humiliation overrides the fear of death, this has far-reaching consequences and sometimes leads to the killing of the victim rather than the perpetrator...
Contents:
• 4 Afghanistan: Gender dynamics in war and exile by Nancy Hatch Dupree
• 8 ‘Bush wives‘ marginalized in rehabiliation programme, Sierra Leone: Chris Coulter
• 12 'Real men' without guns by Mireille Widmer et al
• 15 'Worse than death: humiliating words' by Evelin Gerda Lindner
• 19 Masculine war – feminine peace? by Virginia Saldanha
• 22 Women excluded from peace processes by Luisa Montoya
• 24 1325 - a historic resolution: Progress, effects and obstacles by Maja Edfast
• 26 Female theologians discuss peacebuilding by Kerstin Pihl
• 30 Soldiers’ mothers - strong and suffering by Valerie Zawilski
• 34 The manifold plight of displaced women by Luisa Montoya
• 38 Men in public domain – women in private sphere by Nadeen El-Kassem
• 42 Challenging the media in Israeli war context by Anat Sargusti
• 44 Peace initiatives: Action groups and networks engaging men and women by Luisa Montoya & Kristina Lundqvist.

On Understanding and Addressing Humiliation
Contribution to Maria Volpe's monthly breakfast meeting (since 9/11 on the first Thursday of each month) at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City, December 7, 2006. Please read the Crisis Intervention News and see pictures.

Humiliation as Strongest Force Endangering Peace: Peace Education's Responsibility to Address Humiliation
Conversation at the Peace Education Center at Teachers College, Columbia University, Box171, 525 West 120th Street, New York City, November 30, 2006, 3:30-5:00 pm, room 285 Grace Dodge.

Humiliation and the Roots of Violence: Human Conflict in a Globalizing World
Presentation at The New Jersey Center for Character Education, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey & The New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education, New Jersey Department of Education, Center for Applied Psychology, Rutgers, The State University, Piscataway, New Jersey, 3:30 - 5:00 p.m., November 14, 2006. Please see pictures.

Wir brauchen globale Ampeln
Interview with Marcel Hänggi, WOZ Die Wochenzeitung, Number 43, 26th Oktober 2006, page 16.

Demütigung und Erniedrigung
Zürich, Switzerland: Interview with Angelika Schett on Radio DRS2 Kontext.
Angelika Schett schreibt: Was wird als demütigend erlebt? Was geschieht, wenn sich Menschen erniedrigt fühlen? Wohin führt diese Erniedrigung? Mit diesen Fragen beschäftigt sich die Psychologin und Ärztin Evelin Lindner. Neu an Lindners Ansatz ist, dass sie die Fragen von Demütigung und Erniedrigung mit der Globalisierung in Zusammenhang stellt. Ein Gespräch.
Kontext, Montag, 6. November 2006, 09.05-09.35 h, DRS2
Kontext (Z), Montag, 6. November 2006, 18.30-19.00 h, DRS2

Diese Sendung ist auch auf CD im RadioKiosk erhältlich.
Listen to the soundfile of the long version of the interview.

Demütigung im Zeitalter der Globalisierung
Interview with Angelika Schett on Radio DRS2 Aktuell, short version of above interview, broadcasted on 21st October 2006, 17.00.
Angelika Schett schreibt: Der Schweizerische Berufsverband für Angewandte Psychologie hat zum dritten Mal in Folge den Preis in Angewandter Psychologie verliehen. Er ging an die Medizinerin und Psychologin Evelin Lindner. Gewürdigt wird sie für ihre Forschung zu Demütigung und Erniedrigung. Eine Forschungarbeit, die 2001 zur Gründung des internationalen Netzwerks "Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies" führte.

Ydmykelse
Interview with Aase Cathrine Myrtveit, NRK Radio P2, "Verdibørsen," 14th and 15th October 2006.
Lytt til lydfilen.

Towards Human Dignity: An Interview with Dr. Evelin Lindner
Interview with Tim Newfields in the SIETAR Japan Newsletter, Fall 2006, pp. 26-27.

Humiliation, Iran, and the Middle East Crisis
Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, 2006.

Wider die Omnipräsenz von Demütigung, für eine Politik der Würde
In: Punktum, Fach- und Verbandszeitschrift des Schweizerischen Berufsverbandes für Angewandte Psychologie SBAP, Dezember, 2006, Seiten 22-23.
Einleitung: Am 19. Oktober fand im Auditorium Maximum an der ETH die Verleihung
des SBAP.-Preises in Angewandter Psychologie statt. Preisträgerin 2006
ist die Psychologin und Medizinerin Evelin Gerda Lindner, die mit ihren
Arbeiten zur Demütigung von Individuen und Gruppen einen bedeutsamen
Beitrag zur Friedensforschung leistet.

Paradiesvorstellungen bei Kriegsführung: Die ultimative Erlösung von Demütigung
In: Punktum, Fach- und Verbandszeitschrift des Schweizerischen Berufsverbandes für Angewandte Psychologie SBAP, Dezember, 2006 (Thema „Paradies“), Seiten 10-12.
(Alle Punktum Ausgaben sind zudem auf der virtuellen Fachbibliothek Psychologie der Saarländischen Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek erhältlich. Bitte sehen Sie auch SBAP. Aktivitäten.)
•  Einleitung: Jeden Tag lesen wir über Selbstmordanschläge, nicht nur im Mittleren Osten, auch in anderen Teilen der Welt. Ich schreibe diese Zeilen am 19. August 2006. Scotland Yard hat gerade neue Märtyrer-Videos gefunden, und zwar in Verbindung mit den vereitelten Terroristen-Anschlägen auf Flugzeuge von London nach Amerika. Hinter dem Terrorplan könnte das Netzwerk Al Kaida stehen, das diese Videos einsetzt, um neuen Kandidaten zu zeigen, mit welch nobler Überzeugung und welch festem Glauben andere vor ihnen in den Tod gingen...
Inhalt:
•  Ist das Paradies paradiesisch? M. Kulla
•  Paradies als Topos. M. Jacoby
•  Paradiesvorstellungen, Krieg und Terror. E.G. Lindner
•  Paradiesische Werbewelt. P. Steiner
•  Paradies & Sexualität. Th. Spielmann
•  Wie sähe das CEO-Paradies aus? G. Fatzer
•  Straftäter - die Hölle auf Erden. F. Urbaniok
•  3. SBAP. Preis in Angewandter Psychologie. T. Basler
•  Porträt: Isabelle Chassot, Präs. der EDK
•  EFPA: J. Perriard
•  Buchbesprechung von S. Calvuot: "Missbrauchtes Vertrauen" von Werner Tschan.
•  Buchbesprechung von U. Zöllner: "Gibt es im Leben Alternativen?" von Friedhelm Decher.

Auswirkungen von Demütigung auf Menschen und Völker
Vortrag aus Anlass der 3. Verleihung des SBAP. Preises in Angewandter Psychologie, verliehen vom Schweizerischen Berufsverband für Angewandte Psychologie SBAP an Evelin Lindner. Siehe auch ein kurzes einführendes Statement.
•  Donnerstag, 19. Oktober 2006, um 17 Uhr im Auditorium Maximum der ETH Zürich,
Hauptgebäude, Rämistrasse 101, 8006 Zürich
Frau Dr. Evelin Gerda Lindner erhält den SBAP. Preis 2006 in Angewandter Psychologie für ihre ungewöhnliche Einzelleistung als Forscherin, Projektleiterin und engagierte, international tätige und multidisziplinär vernetzte Kämpferin für Humanität in einer globalisierten Gesellschaft. Mit ihrem Thema der Auswirkungen von Demütigung auf Menschen und Völker leistet sie einen bedeutsamen Beitrag zur Friedensforschung. Die Laudatio hält Frau Prof. Dr. phil. Ulrike Zöllner.
•  English translation of above paragraph: Lecture given for the occasion of the 2006 Award for Applied Psychology, awarded by the Swiss Association of Applied Psychology to Evelin Lindner, Auditorium Maximum, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETHZ), Main Building, Rämistrasse 101, 8006 Zürich, Switzerland, Thursday, 19th October 2006.
Please see
•  more details on the event on www.sbap.ch, and see also pictures and reactions
•  the invitation
•  a description of the SBAP prize
•  opening speech by the SBAP President Heidi Aeschlimann
•  greeting by Kantonsrätin Emy Lalli
•  laudatio by Professor Ulrike Zöllner (English translation by Verena Neuburger)
•  interview with Angelika Schett on Radio DRS2 Aktuell, short version on 21st October 17.00, eventually also 12.15, and longer version on 6th November, 9.00, in DRS2 KONTEXT, repeated at 18.30. DRS2 provides the interview as CD.
•  Wir brauchen globale Ampeln, interview with Marcel Hänggi, WOZ Die Wochenzeitung, Nummer 43, 26. Oktober 2006, Seite 16

Avoiding Humiliation - From Intercultural Communication to Global Interhuman Communication
Lecture for the Society for Intercultural Education, Training and Research (SIETAR) Japan, 9th June 2006, 7:00-9:00 pm, Reitaku University Tokyo Kenkyu Center (Shinjuku i-Land Tower, 4th Floor)
•  Please see a draft for this lecture, which was revised and published in the Journal of Intercultural Communication, SIETAR Japan in June 2007.
•  Please click here to see pictures from this lecture.
•  See the interview with Tim Newfields in the SIETAR Japan Newsletter, Fall 2006, pp. 26-27.
•  The following was the announcement for this lecture in the SIETAR newsletter: Dr. Evelin Lindner inscribes the notion of pride, honor, dignity, humiliation, and humility into current historic and cultural transitions, identifying 2 current forces in world affairs. She will discuss how identity building and global inter-human communication are necessaryto avoid possible destructive effects from humiliation. Presenter: Dr. Evelin Gerda Lindner is a well-known, committed, and multidisciplinary advocate for humanity in a global society. Her work on the effects of humiliation on individuals and communities has made a significant contribution to the study of peace. The founder of the Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies global network, Dr. Lindner is affiliated, among others, with the University in Oslo. She will be publishing her latest book in June.

Marie Doezema (2006)
Weekend Beat/She trots the 'global village'
International Herald Tribune/Asahi Shimbun, July 8, 2006.
(I apologize that some factual mistakes slipped through; please check with me before quoting. Please see here the class in which Marie participated).

Is it Possible to "Change the World"? Some Guidelines to How We Can Build a More Decent and Dignified World Effectively: The Case of Dignifying Abusers
Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, 2006.
•  Introduction: I frequently receive enraged letters from friends who observe dynamics of humiliation in their social surroundings and feel that it is plainly wrong to treat abusers of dignity in dignified ways. Usually, their messages begin with the description of some despicable and painfully humiliating abuse that is occurring in their private or professional surroundings, involving them as victims or as third parties...

A New Culture of Peace: Can We Hope That Global Society Will Enter Into a Harmonious Information Age?
Paper written at the request of Dr. Leo Semashko, St. Petersburg, Russia, 2006.
Please see the paper, with Leo Semashko's comments posted on on www.peacefromharmony.org/.
•  Abstract: Can we hope that global society will enter into a harmonious information age, as Russian sociologist Leo Semashko suggests? Or is this nothing more than an illusionary wish? Currently, the gap between rich and poor widens, both locally and globally, and the have-nots watch how elites overindulge in luxury goods. We live in a ramshackle global village, resembling what John Stewart Mill in the nineteenth century called a ramshackle state. In many ways we face the anarchic world that Robert Kaplan (1994), describes in The Coming Anarchy, with overpopulation, resource scarcity, terror, crime, and disease compounding cultural and ethnic differences and rendering us a chaotic, anarchic world...

"Sugawara and the Secrets of Calligraphy": Exposing the Wounds Inflicted by Ranking People in Higher and Lesser Beings
Reflections after seeing Sugawara and the Secrets of Calligraphy on 20th April 2006 at the National Bunraku Theatre in Osaka, Japan.
•  Please see here the Japanese translation of these reflections.
•  Please see here some pictures.
•  Introduction: Bunraku, or Japanese puppet theatre, is probably the most developed form of puppetry in the world and recognised by UNESCO (please learn more about Bunraku at www.bunraku.or.jp/). I saw Sugawara and the Secrets of Calligraphy on 20th April 2006 at the National Bunraku Theatre in Osaka.
The Bunraku narrators convey emotions in ways that are unparalleled and profoundly educational from the point of view of psychological inquiry: "evil laugh," deep sorrow and despair are performed in intensely touching ways. One narrator was 81 years old, a "living cultural heritage."
The epic Sugawara and the Secrets of Calligraphy has the following historic context: "Sugawara no Michizane (known in this play as Kanshojo) was a high-ranking imperial court minister who was a brilliant calligrapher and scholar. But political rivalries forced him to be exiled to distant Kyushu, where he died. After Michizane's death, a series of disasters in the imperial capital were attributed to his angry spirit and he was appeased by being made a god known as Tenjin, and he is now revered as the god of learning. His story was dramatized as an epic puppet drama in 1746 and the play remains a favorite in both kabuki and the Bunraku puppet theatre" (quoted from www.eg-gm.jp/eg/, please read the entire story in the Appendix further down).

The Role of Dignity and Humiliation in a Globalising World: New Forms of Cooperative Approaches to Solve New Social Dilemma Situations as well as Succeed in Intercultural Encounters
Guest lecture given at a workshop for graduate students, organised by Professor Hora Tjitra on the occasion of Lindner's visit to the Department of Applied Psychology, Zhejiang University, School of Psychology, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China, 13th April 2006.
•  Please see here Reflections on Feedback from the Audience.
•  Please see also some pictures.
•  Please see furthermore the planned HumanDHS meeting in Hangzhou in April 2007.
•  Introduction: When I give lectures on humiliation around the world, audiences react sometimes in different ways and sometimes similarly. It is very fruitful for me to think through my audiences' feedback and to connect it with the feedback that I receive in other parts of the world. I have the aim to assemble a collection of "misunderstandings" that arise when I give my talks. This text is the first attempt to create such a collection. The differentiation of humility versus humiliation, for example, is often unfamiliar, even in English speaking countries. And the idea that equal dignity is not to be confused with forcing everybody into sameness is another difficult concept. It is difficult to grasp unity in diversity (Bond, 1999). These are concepts that appear to be difficult wherever I give lectures. In contrast, the example of Hitler versus Mandela, for example, is easier to apply in some world regions than others. Also the status of human rights is not the same everywhere.
I would be very thankful to my audiences around the world, if you could provide me with more feedback and more examples that are more adapted to your cultural context!

Globalization & Egalization
Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, 2006
English version
Deutsche Version
Norsk versjon
Version francais

"The Cartoon War" of Humiliation versus Humiliation: What Should Be Done?
Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, 2006, see also the News Section of HumanDHS.
•  Introduction: Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies (www.humiliationstudies.org), the global network of academics and practitioners that I have founded, currently receives many emails asking our group to give our opinion as to what many call “The Cartoon War.” This “war” has been triggered by Danish Cartoons of Prophet Muhammad. The caricatures include drawings of Muhammad wearing a headdress shaped like a bomb, while another shows him saying that paradise was running short of virgins for suicide bombers....

To My Children and the Children of the World
In: The Promise Club initiated by Kerry Bowden, 2006.

How Global Citizenship Can Heal: Supporting Thomas Friedman
Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, 2006, see also the News Section of HumanDHS.
•  Introduction: Thomas Friedman (2005) has written a book about the flattening of the World. He describes in detail how the globalization of technology breaks down barriers, creates unprecedented level playing fields, and gives access to people who so far were excluded. However, there is another message out there as well: The gap between the rich and the poor increases. This means that the world does not grow flatter, on the contrary. A UN report has found that the world is more unequal today than it was 10 years ago, despite considerable economic growth in many regions (Report on the World Social Situation 2005: The Inequality Predicament, by DESA, August 2005, obtainable from).
How can we reconcile these opposing descriptions of our world? Which is true?

How Becoming a Global Citizen Can Have a Healing Effect
Paper presented on 3rd February 2006, at the 2006 ICU-COE Northeast Asian Dialogue: Sharing Narratives, Weaving/Mapping History, 3rd - 5th February 2006, International Christian University (ICU), Tokyo, Japan.
•  Please see here Jackie's invitation, and some pictures from Evelin's camera, and here the organizers' pictures.
•  Introduction: First versions of this paper were written for the 2006 ICU-COE Northeast Asian Boundary-spanning Dialogue Project (" Sharing Narratives, Weaving/Mapping History," 3rd - 5th February 2006, International Christian University, Tokyo, Japan). The participants were divided into four circles and encouraged to present their personal histories. A great sense of enthusiasm, almost exhilaration, permeated the Dialogue weekend. One of the most exiting aspects was that everybody had the permission to be a "human being" - as opposed to "a Chinese," or "a Korean," or "a Japanese." Usually, by stepping out of in-group definitions, one has to pay by sacrificing one's sense of belonging and mutual connection. During the Dialogue weekend, nobody was punished for failing to be adequately "loyal" to their in-group; nobody was ostracized for failing to be sufficiently "Japanese," or "Korean," or "Chinese." On the contrary, a new "in-group membership" was on offer - the membership in all humankind. No longer had the participants to carefully hide "unfitting" aspects of themselves; on the contrary, everybody was encouraged to just be "me" and would still be connected and loved. In the Dialogue weekend, everybody was allowed to break out of narrow in-group boundaries and forge a new in-group community, humankind.
In this paper I first outline how I initially felt a painful sense of not-belonging (I am born into a refugee family) and how I proceeded to building a deeply fulfilling and satisfying global identity. In the subsequent section I discuss what I gained with this approach. I conclude with advocating that we all need to cooperate in building an inclusive world for all.
My reflections derive from more than twenty years of international therapeutic experience coupled with the social psychological research on humiliation that I began in 1996. My four-year doctoral research project in social psychology was entitled, The Feeling of Being Humiliated: A Central Theme in Armed Conflicts. A Study of the Role of Humiliation in Somalia, and Rwanda/Burundi, Between the Warring Parties, and in Relation to Third Intervening Parties (Lindner, 2000, University of Oslo). My book Making Enemies Unwittingly: Humiliation and International Conflict, will be published soon (Lindner, 2006, Westport, CT: Praeger).

Krenkelsens psykologi – og visjonen om den globale landsby
I: Ann Kristin Krokan og Toril Heglum (red.), Med vitende og vilje - om funksjonshemming, diskriminering og krenkelse, kapittel 18, sider 242-231. Oslo: Kommuneforlaget, 2006.
•  Innledning: Min forskning p å ydmykelse har sitt utgangspunkt i tysk historie og i min egen bakgrunn som barn av flyktninger i Tyskland etter krigen. Flere millioner etniske tyskere, blant dem mine foreldre, ble tvangsflyttet fra områder i Polen. Min mor var femten når dette skjedde. For henne var dette en ydmykelse som traumatiserte henne dypt, og som preger henne fortsatt, mer enn seksti år etter krigen...
Innholdsfortegnelse:
• Innledning
• Ville du ikke heller vært død?
• Kapittel 1: Med vitende og vilje
• Kapittel 2: Ikke nevnt og heller ikke savnet
• Kapittel 3: Avkreves innsats over gjennomsnittet – betegnes med ressurser under middels
• Kapittel 4: Funksjonshemmende og rangeringssamfunnet
• Kapittel 5: Respektløs medlidelse – om fordommer i møte med funksjonshemmede
• Kapittel 6: Krenkelser av funksjonshemmede i språk, metaforer, litteratur, kultur og reklame
• Kapittel 7: Den språklige segregeringen
• Kapittel 8: Forskning – for hvem?
• Kapittel 9: Makt, avmakt og institusjonelle overgrep
• Kapittel 10: Aller nederst på rangstigen
• Kapittel 11: Om styltegjengere og andre balansekunstnere
• Kapittel 12: Krenket på hjemmebane
• Kapittel 13: Det enkleste er ofte det verste
• Kapittel 14: Den beste medisin
• Kapittel 15: Seksuelle overgrep mot funksjonshemmede kvinner
• Kapittel 16: Menneskesyn – fosterdiagnostikk og seleksjon for fødsel
• Kapittel 17: Midlertidig frihetsberøvede
• Kapittel 18: Krenkelsens psykologi – og visjonen om den globale landsby

Emotion and Conflict: Why It Is Important to Understand How Emotions Affect Conflict and How Conflict Affects Emotions
In: Morton Deutsch, Peter T. Coleman, and Eric C. Marcus (Eds.), The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice. (2nd ed.), Chapter Twelve, pp. 268-293, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2006.
•  Introduction to Evelin's chapter: We have all experienced strong emotions related to conflict. Our emotions affect the conflicts in our lives and conflict, in turn, influences our emotions.
This chapter begins with two brief examples, one international and one personal, to show the interaction between emotions and conflict. For the international example, let us look at World War II.
Hitler was an isolated and alienated loner obsessed by the weakness of Germany during World War I and after. At some point, however, his obsessions began to resonate with the feelings of what was called in Germany "the little people" (die kleinen Leute, or the powerless). He offered a grand narrative of national humiliation and invited "the little people" to join in with the personal grievances they suffered due to the general political and economic misery. "The little people" occupied a distinctly subordinated position in Germany 's social hierarchy prior to Hitler's rise. They rallied to Hitler's cause because he provided them with a sense of importance. He was greeted as a savior, as a new kind of leader promising them love and unprecedented significance instead of insignificance. Only after World War II did they have to painfully recognize how he had abused their loyalty. As soon as he had enough popular support, Hitler built institutions that forced his manipulation on everybody, evoking noble feelings of loyalty and heroic resistance against humiliation, convincing the German people that the Aryan race was meant to lead and save the world. Hitler was an expert on feelings. Many Germans put such faith in Hitler that they followed him until 1945, even when it became clear that the situation was doomed. Intense loyalty and highly emotional participation in a collective obsession undercut even the most basic rational and ethical considerations.
Now to a personal example: Envision yourself as a therapist with a client named Eve who came to you because she was depressed. She is severely and regularly beaten by her husband, Adam. Neighbors describe scenes of shouting and crying and the bruise marks on Eve's body are only too obvious. You are afraid Eve may not survive and you visit her as frequently as your schedule permits. You try to convince her to protect herself, by leaving her unsafe home to seek refuge in sheltered housing, at least at times of crisis. In your mind, you define her as a victim and her husband as a perpetrator. You explain to Eve that "domestic chastisement" has long been outlawed. You suggest that Adam utterly humiliates her and that she ought to develop a "healthy" anger as a first step toward collecting sufficient strength to change her life. To you, this situation clearly represents a destructive conflict loaded with hot and violent emotion and you wish to contribute to its constructive resolution.
Eve stubbornly undermines your efforts and thwarts your dedicated and well-intentioned attempts to help her. She argues along these lines: "Beating me is my husband's way of loving me! I am not a victim. I bring his anger on myself when I fail to respect his authority! He saved me from a cruel father! My father never spoke of love and care - Adam does!" And Adam adamantly refuses to be labeled a "perpetrator," accusing you of viciously disturbing the peace of his home and claiming that you violate his male honor.
From Adam's perspective, there is no destructive conflict, no suffering victim, and no violent perpetrator. It is you, the therapist, the human rights defender, an uninvited third party, who introduces conflict. The definition of love and benevolence is crucial here. You define love as the meeting of equal hearts and minds in mutual caring, a definition embedded in the human rights ideal of equal dignity for all. Eve and her husband, on the other hand, connect love with female subservience. You introduce conflict by drawing Eve's attention to a new definition of love, one that is in total opposition to the couple's definition.
We can easily link the example of Eve and Adam to events at the international level. Human rights framings of equal dignity for all do not always meet friendly acceptance in the supposed "perpetrators." The South African elites were defensive about Apartheid - they felt entitled to superiority. So-called "honor-killings" have only recently received attention. This practice has moved from the rather neutral category of "cultural practice" to the accusatory category of "violation of human rights." Or, consider the Indian caste system, which has only very recently been labeled "Indian Apartheid," a new definition for a way of life that has endured for thousands of years.
In this conundrum, in which emotions and conflict are entangled in painful ways, questions arise such as: When and in what ways are emotions (feelings of suffering, pain and rage, or love and caring) part of a "conflict" that calls for our attention? And when are they not? Who decides? What we can be sure about is that emotions and conflict are not static. They are embedded into larger historical and cultural surroundings. We live in times of transition toward increasing global interdependence and more equal dignity for all. Emotion and conflict and their consequences - how we live them, how we define them - are part of this transition. They, too, change as the world transforms.
Contents:
Preface
• Introduction by Morton Deutsch
PART ONE: INTERPERSONAL AND INTERGROUP PROCESSES
• 1 Cooperation and Competition by Morton Deutsch
• 2 Justice and Conflict by Morton Deutsch
• 3 Constructive Controversy: The Value of Intellectual Opposition by David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson, Dean Tjosvold
• 4 Trust, Trust Development, and Trust Repair by Roy J. Lewicki
• 5 Power and Conflict by Peter T. Coleman
• 6 Communication and Conflict by Robert M. Krauss, Ezequiel Morsella
• *7 Language, Peace, and Conflict Resolution by Francisco Gomes de Matos
• 8 Intergroup Conflict by Ronald J. Fisher
• 9 The PSDM Model: Integrating Problem Solving and Decision Making in Conflict Resolution by Eben A. Weitzman, Patricia Flynn Weitzman
• *10 Gender Conflict and the Family by Janice M. Steil, Liora Hoffman
PART TWO: INTRAPSYCHIC PROCESSES
• 11 Judgmental Biases in Conflict Resolution and How to Overcome Them by Leigh Thompson, Janice Nadler, Robert B. Lount, Jr.
• *12 Emotion and Conflict: Why It Is Important to Understand How Emotions Affect Conflict and How Conflict Affects Emotions by Evelin G. Lindner
• 13 Self-Regulation in the Service of Conflict Resolution by Walter Mischel, Aaron L. DeSmet, Ethan Kross
PART THREE: PERSONAL DIFFERENCES
• *14 Implicit Theories and Conflict Resolution by Carol S. Dweck, Joyce Ehrlinger
• 15 Personality and Conflict by Sandra V. Sandy, Susan K. Boardman, Morton Deutsch
• 16 The Development of Conflict Resolution Skills: Preschool to Adulthood by Sandra V. Sandy
PART FOUR: CREATIVITY AND CHANGE
• 17 Creativity and Conflict Resolution: The Role of Point of View by Howard E. Gruber
• 18 Some Guidelines for Developing a Creative Approach to Conflict by Peter T. Coleman, Morton Deutsch
• *19 Creativity in the Outcomes of Conflict by Peter J. Carnevale
• 20 Change and Conflict: Motivation, Resistance and Commitment by Eric C. Marcus
• 21 Changing Minds: Persuasion in Negotiation and Conflict Resolution by Alison Ledgerwood, Shelly Chaiken, Deborah H. Gruenfeld, Charles M. Judd
• 22 Learning Through Reflection by Victoria J. Marsick, Alfonso Sauquet, Lyle Yorks
PART FIVE: DIFFICULT CONFLICTS
• 23 Aggression and Violence by Susan Opotow
• 24 Intractable Conflict by Peter T. Coleman
• *25 Moral Conflict and Engaging Alternative Perspectives by Beth Fisher-Yoshida, Ilene Wasserman
• *26 Matters of Faith: Religion, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution by Bridget Moix
• *27 Conflict Resolution and Human Rights by Andrea Bartoli, Yannis Psimopoulos
PART SIX: CULTURE AND CONFLICT
28 Culture and Conflict by Paul R. Kimmel
*29 Multicultural Conflict Resolution by Paul Pederson
• 30 Cooperative and Competitive Conflict in China by Dean Tjosvold, Kwok Leung, David W. Johnson
PART SEVEN: MODELS OF PRACTICE
• 31 Teaching Conflict Resolution Skills in a Workshop by Ellen Raider, Susan Coleman, Janet Gerson
• 32 Mediation Revisited by Kenneth Kressel
• 33 Managing Conflict Through Large-Group Methods by Barbara Benedict Bunker
• *34 Conflict in Organizations by W. Warner Burke
• *35 Eight Suggestions from the Small-Group Conflict Trenches by Kenneth Sole
PART EIGHT: LOOKING TO THE FUTURE
• 36 A Framework for Thinking About Research on Conflict Resolution Initiatives by Morton Deutsch, Jennifer S. Goldman
• *37 Some Research Frontiers in the Study of Conflict and Its Resolution by Dean G. Pruitt
Concluding Overview by Peter T. Coleman, Eric C. Marcus

Humiliation in Reactions to Hitler’s Seductiveness in Post-War Germany: Personal Reflections
In: Social Alternatives (Special Issue "Humiliation and History in Global Perspectives"), Vol. 25, No. 1, First Quarter, pp. 6-11, 2006 (the full text of the entire journal is available by obtaining a copy of the Special Issue of Social Alternatives from Ralph Summy, or here in pdf format).
•  Abstract: This article first addresses the various forms of humiliation. The discussion then offers the intricate web of feelings among the German population towards Adolph Hitler. It is argued that the ‘broad masses’ were subordinated in Germany’s social hierarchy before and after World War I. ‘The little people’ rallied to Hitler’s cause because he gave them a sense of importance. Only after World War II did many painfully recognise how he had abused their loyalty. On the other hand, the aristocracy had initially expected Hitler to be their puppet. Instead, he rendered them powerless and humiliated them with his initial political and military victories. After World War II, the defeat - the ‘Zusammenbruch’- prompted a deep sense of mortification among the common people as well as the elite. After the monarchy had lost the contest in 1918, feelings of humiliation had fed public resentment and instability. In 1945, however, abasement had become an inner experience. Every Hitler follower had reason to feel humiliated by his or her misplaced devotion to the Führer — the ‘little people’ for allowing the destructive dictator, Adolf Hitler, to capture their hearts, the aristocracy for letting it happen. Unpleasant feelings of humiliation, denial, ambivalence, and uncertainty represented the common reactions to Hitler’s fatal seduction as my interviews with German survivors of his regime revealed.
Contents:
Guest Editor's Introduction to the Special Issue 'History and Humiliation' of Social Alternatives, pp. 3-4, by Wyatt-Brown, Bertram
From the Editor's Desk, p. 5, by Summy, Ralph
Part One: The European Experience:
• Humiliation and Reactions to Hitler's Seductiveness in Post-War Germany: Personal Reflections, pp. 6-11, by Lindner, Evelin G.
• A Woman in Berlin: An Endless Cycle of Female Humiliation, Berlin 1945, pp. 12-16, Wyatt-Brown, Anne
• ‘The Troubles’ in Northern Ireland, 1968-2005: A Case of Mutual Humiliation, pp. 17-21, by Stokes, Paul A.
Part Two: The American Experience:
• Honor, Irony, and Humiliation in the Era of American Civil War, pp. 22-27, by Wyatt-Brown, Bertram
• The Ultimate Shame: Lynch-Law in the Post-Civil War American South, pp. 28-32, by Brundage, W. Fitzhugh
• Humiliation and Domination under American Eyes: German POWs in the Continental United States, 1942-1945, pp. 33-39, by Hudnall, Amy C.
Part Three: Experience of Developing Nations:
• Humiliation and Its Brazilian History as a Domain of Sociolinguistic Study, pp. 40-43, by Gomes de Matos, Francisco
• Humiliation in India's Historical Consciousness, pp. 44-49, by Danino, Michel
• The Rwanda Akazi (Forced Labour) System, History, and Humiliation, pp. 50-55, by Gasanabo, Jean-Damascène
• Hubris, History, and Humiliation: Quest for Utopia in Post-Saddam Iraq, pp. 56-61, by Fontan, Victoria C Fontan

Humiliation or Dignity in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
By Evelin G. Lindner, Neil Ryan Walsh & Judy Kuriansky
In: Judy Kuriansky (Ed.), Terror in the Holy Land, Inside the Anguish of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, chapter 14, pp. 123-131, Westport, CT, London: Greenwood Press and Praeger Publishers, 2006.
•  Introduction to Evelin's chapter: Many conflicts around the world are fueled by the universal phenomenon of humiliation, which occurs when members of one group feel that they are not allowed to live life in a dignified way because of a perceived lack of recognition and respect from another group. This view of conflict derives from the emerging field of humiliation studies (Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, n.d.; Klein, 1991; Lindner, 2006b; Miller, 1993; Steinberg, 1991) and presents an alternative to the clash of civilizations thesis proposed by Huntington (1996) by taking into account the experience of humiliation and the universal human need for dignity within an examination of ethnic and cultural differences. Furthermore, an analy­sis of violent behavior as a result of wounds derived from disappointment and humiliation can provide deeper explanation and hold more promise for construc­tive transformation of conflict than simply relying on concepts such as unex-plainable evil. Therefore, the investigation of humiliation can be useful for schol­arly and applied work in conflict resolution.
This chapter explores the role of humiliation as the source of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. It includes a definition of humiliation from an interdisciplin­ary social science perspective, examples of humiliation in both cultures, and rec­ommendations for how to address constructively this destructive element for both peoples.
Contents:
• Foreword by Chris E. Stout
• Acknowledgments
•  Introduction by Dr Judy Kuriansky
PART I: Times of Terror: Anguish on Both Side
• Chapter 1: Homeland, Helplessness, Hate and Heroes: Psychosocial Dynamics in the Israeli Palestinian Conflict by Julia DiGangi
• Chapter 2. Girls Interrupted: The Making of Female Palestinian Suicide Bombers by Katherine VanderKaay
• Chapter 3: Coming of Age in Times in Terrorism by Barbara Sofer
• Chapter 4: Raised for Jihad: A Shahid's Daughter Speaks Out by Nonie Darwish
• Chapter 5: The Mental Health Situation for Palestinians Today by Abdel hamid Afana
• Chapter 6: Coping with Terror: Lessons from Israel by Danny Brom
• Chapter 7: A Bomb on the Bus by Yonah Dovid Bardos
• Chapter 8: Cries for Help: A Palestinian Social Worker's Story by Nahida AlArja
• Chapter 9: Lost Paradise: Trauma and Martyrdom in Palestinian Families by Elia Awwad
• Chapter 10: Terror in Jerusalem: Israelis Coping with "Emergency Routine" in Daily Life by Ruth Pat-Horencyk
• Chapter 11: The Impact of Israel's Wall on Palestinian Mental Health by Nisreen Boushieh
• Chapter 12: Israelis and Palestinians Speak Out About Violence and Peace: Public Opinion Polls 2000-2006 by Vani Murugesan
• Chapter 13: Terror at Home and Abroad: Israeli Reactions to International Incidents of Violence by Judy Kuriansky, Lisa Bagenstose, Michele Hirsch, Avi Burstein and Yahel Tsaidi
PART II: Psychosocial Issues in the Conflict
• Chapter 14: Humiliation or Dignity in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict by Evelin Gerda Lindner, Neil Ryan Walsh, and Judy Kuriansky
• Chapter 15: Breaking the Cycle of Revenge in the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict by Gary Reiss
• Chapter 16. Obstacles to Asymmetry: Personal and Professional Lessons in Israeli-Palestinian Crisis and Reconciliation by Isaac Mendelsohn
• Chapter 17: Collective Identity Terror in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict and Potential Solutions by Ibrahim Kira
• Chapter 18: In Search of My Identity: The Value of Humor About the Arab Israeli Conflict by Ray Hanania
• Chapter 19: Caught in the Middle; Identity Conflicts in Arab Adolescents in Israel by Salman Elbedour, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, Aref Abu-Rabia, Persephone Brown, and Qun G. Jiao
PART III: Women and Children Caught in the Conflict
• Chapter 20: Anguish of Israeli Women Against the Backdrop of the Intifada by Joyce Brenner
• Chapter 21: The Effect of Conflict and Militarization on Palestinian Women by Amal Abusrour
• Chapter 22. The Emotional Impact of the Intifada on Palestinian Youth: Implications for Finding the Path to Peace by Jeff Victoroff
• Chapter 23. Feeling 'Safe': An Israeli Intervention Program for Helping Children Cope with Exposure to Political Violence and Terrorism by Michelle Slone and Anat Shoshani
• Chapter 24. Demonization of the "Other" and Tools to Transform Foe to Friend by Ofra Ayalon
PART IV: Therapeutic and Educational Efforts for Understanding, Coping and Reconciliation
• Chapter 25: Awaiting the Wounded: A Doctor's Story by Avraham Rivkin
• Chapter 26: Challenges Of A Young Palestinian Clinician During the Intifada by Roney Srour
• Chapter 27: Healing the Wounds of War in Gaza and Israel: A Mind-Body Approach by James S. Gordon
• Chapter 28: InShallah, Family, Gender Roles and Other Issues Affecting Mental Health and Therapy for Palestinian Arab-Israelis by Alean Al-Krenawi and John Graham
• Chapter 29: Ordinary Madness of the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict by Jerry Lawler
• Chapter 30: Making Paper Flowers Bloom: Coping Strategies to Survive the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict by Judy Kuriansky
• Chapter 31: Weathering the "Perfect Storm": Moving Beyond Intractability of the Israeli/Palestinian Conflict by Heidi Burgess and Guy Burgess

Humiliation, Killing, War, and Gender
In: Mari Fitzduff, and Chris E. Stout (Eds.), The Psychology of Resolving Global Conflicts: From War to Peace. Volume 1: Nature vs. Nurture, pp. 137-174. Westport, CT, London: Praeger Security International, 2006.
•  Abstract: The chapter "humiliation, killing, war, and gender" analyzes these phenomenona in their embeddedness in the current transition to Human Rights ideals that promote equal dignity for all. Honor norms are anchored in a social context that is deeply different from contexts of equal dignity for all. Currently, both, honor and equal dignity are cultural concepts that are significant for people world-wide. The problem is that they clash and are incompatible in many ways.
The chapter sheds light on the transition from norms of honor to norms of equal dignity, and how this is played out in the field of gender, killing, and war. Also the phenomenon that people can feel humiliated and retaliate with acts of humiliation is discussed in relation to this transition. The chapter is rounded up by a call for a Moratorium on Humiliation in order to safeguard a world that is livable for coming generations.
Contents:
•  Foreword by Chris E. Stout
•  Introduction: Ending Wars: Developments, Theories, and Practice by Mari Fitzduff
• Chapter 1: Human Nature, Ethnic Violence, and War by Melvin Konner
• Chapter 2: Tribal, "Ethnic," and Global Wars by R. Brian Ferguson
• Chapter 3: Neuropsychology of Conflict: Implications for Peacemaking by Douglas E. Nell
• Chapter 4: Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing by James Waller
• Chapter 5: Fundamentalism, Violence, and War, by J. Harold Ellens
• Chapter 6: Humiliation, Killing, War, and Gender by Evelin Gerda Lindner
• Chapter 7: Lessons for the Rest of Us: Learning from Peaceful Societies by Bruce D. Bonta and Douglas P. Fry
• Chapter 8: Integrative Complexity nd Cognitive Management in International Confrontations: Research and Potential Applications by Peter Swedfelt, Dana C. Leighton, and Lucian Gideon Conway III
• Chapter 9: Emotion, Alienation, and Narratives in Protracted Conflict by Suzanne Retzinger and Thomas Scheff
• Chapter 10: The Capacity for Religious Experience Is an Evolutionary Adaptation to Warfare by Allen D. MacNeill
• Chapter 11: Conflict Transformation: A Group Relations Perspective by Tracy Wallach
• Chapter 12: Psychology of a Stable Peace by Daniel Shapiro and Vanessa Liu
Conclusion: What Can We Do? by Mari Fitzduff

Thomas Clough Daffern: Interview with Evelin Lindner
In: The Muses Journal - Love, Justice and Wisdom: An International Journal of Education for Peace and Global Responsibility, 2005/2006 Issue Eight, pp. 78-87.

Humiliation
Draft prepared for entries in Encyclopedias.

Crisis and Gender: Addressing the Psychosocial Needs of Women in International Disasters
by Amy C. Hudnall, and Evelin Gerda Lindner
In: Gilbert Reyes, and Gerard A. Jacobs (Eds.), Handbook of International Disaster Psychology (Vol 4): Interventions With Special Needs Populations, pp. 1-18. Westport, CT, London: Greenwood Press and Praeger Publishers, 2005.
•  Introduction to Amy's & Evelin's chapter: Why is it necessary to include in these volumes a chapter devoted to the special problems that women may encounter during and after disasters? Everyone suffers: men, children, and women. Are women more vulnerable? Have their interests been largely ignored? "Psychological trauma is an affliction of the powerless. At the moment of trauma, the victim is rendered helpless by overwhelming force" (Herman, 1997, p. 33). How often are these words, which here describe the affect of traumatic incidents, used when women describe events in their lives? Women often are more vulnerable; however, since they occupy a central role in community life, they also can be empowered to protect communities from disasters...
Contents:
Set Foreword by Chris E. Stout
Forewordby Benedetto Saraceno
Preface by Charles D. Spielberger
Acknowledgments
Overview of the International Disaster Psychology Volumesby Gilbert Reyes
•  Chapter 1: Crisis and Gender: Addressing the Psychosocial Needs of Women in Inernational Disasters by Amy C. Hudnall and Evelin Gerda Lindner
•  Chapter 2: Sexual Violence against Women and Children in the Context of Armed Conflict by Chen Reis and Beth Vann
•  Chapter 3: How Do You Mend Broken Hearts? Gender, War, and Impacts on Girls in Fighting Forces by Susan McKay
•  Chapter 4: Children Affected by Armed Conflict in South Asia: A Regional Sumary by Jo Boyden, Joanna de Berry, Thomas Feeny, and Jason Hart
•  Chapter 5: Serving the Psychosocial Needs of Survivors of Torture and Organized Violence by Peter Berliner and Elisabeth Naima Mikkelsen
•  Chapter 6: Managing Stress in Humanitarian Aid Workers: The Role of the Humanitarian Aid Organization by John H. Ehrenreich
•  Chapter 7: Psychosocial Crisis Inervention with Miltary and Emergency Services Pesonnel by Erik L. J. L. De Soir
•  Chapter 8: Helping Journalists Who Cover Humanitarian Crises by Elana Neumann and Bruce Shapiro
Conclusions and Recommendations for Further Progress by Giblert Reyes
Epilogue by Yael Danieli

Mature Differentiation As Response to Terrorism and Humiliation: Refrain From the Language of 'War' and 'Evil'
In: Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Research, www.oldsite.transnational.org/SAJT/tff/people/e_lindner.html, 22nd September 2005.
•  Introduction: The 2005 bombs in London shook the world. They reminded everybody of the Madrid bombings of 11th March 2004, or of what has become known as 'Nine Eleven,' to name only two of the tragedies that currently unsettle the world. Innocent civilians live in fear - not only is the West, also in Afghanistan, Iraq, the Middle East, in African countries and other world regions.
In many cases, the West is the 'addressee' and we have perpetrators acting as ultimate humiliators of the Western world. Taking down the World Trade Center 's Twin Towers, proud symbols of Western power, was a cruel 'message of humiliation'. Paralysing world hubs such as London and Madrid is another 'message of humiliation.'... What I discuss in this article is that we have to introduce humility - humble awareness of our shared humanity and our joint responsibility for sustaining our planet, socially and ecologically. We need to refrain from language of 'war' and 'evil'. These labels might give us the feeling of control and pride over our own heroism. However, 'war' needs to be won 'against' 'enemies', and 'evil' calls for 'extermination' and 'flushing out'. In an interdependent world - rather than rendering peace - this strategy risks fuelling ever new cycles of humiliation, because hearts and minds can only be won and not 'flushed out'.

Parents - The Role Model
In: Sahil, Pakistan, 14 (32, April-June), p. 9, 2005.
•  Please see here the longer original draft for this article:
Parenting Styles and Their Impact on Children: Humiliation, Abuse and Neglect

•  Introduction: For thousands of years, almost everywhere on the globe, humankind believed in hierarchically ranking human value. Almost everybody thought that some people were born as higher beings and others as lower beings. This was called the "order of nature" or "divine order." The cradle of democracy, the Greek city state of about 2,000 years ago - just to give you one example out of many - was adamant that women and slaves, per definition, had no voice.
Any pain or suffering that those had to endure who had their place somewhere at the bottom of the pyramid of power was deemed to be necessary pain or prosocial humbling. Through thousands of years, underlings' sufferings were regarded as "good" for them and "fruitful" for the health of society as a whole. Beating underlings, for example, was usually regarded not as abuse, but as legitimate means to "remind" them of their "due" place. Vaccinations or surgical operation, albeit painful, are generally accepted as "good treatment" for patients; this is a positive view of pain that everybody sympathizes with. Similarly, for millennia, underlings' pain was seen as "good treatment" for underlings and the health of society altogether.

Die Psychologie der Demütigung
In: Punktum, Fach- und Verbandszeitschrift des Schweizerischen Berufsverbandes für Angewandte Psychologie SBAP, März 2005, Seiten 3-8.
(Alle Punktum Ausgaben sind zudem auf der virtuellen Fachbibliothek Psychologie der Saarländischen Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek erhältlich. Bitte sehen Sie auch SBAP. Aktivitäten.)
•  Einführung: Deutschland wurde durch die Versailler Verträge nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg gedemütigt, und diese Demütigung spielte eine wichtige Rolle als auslösender Faktor für den Ausbruch des Zweiten Weltkrieges. Dieser Satz findet sich so oder in ähnlicher Form in vielen Publikationen, die sich mit der deutschen Geschichte befassen. Dieser Satz stellt in seiner Grundstruktur nichts anderes dar als eine sozialpsychologische Hypothese, nämlich dass Demütigung zu Krieg führen kann.
Die folgende Frage scheint berechtigt: Ist diese Hypothese angemessen? Spiegelt sie die Wirklichkeit korrekt? Wenn ja, wo und wie spielt diese Hypothese eine Rolle? Ist sie nur für die Geschichte Deutschlands von Bedeutung? Oder ist sie auch für Konflikte der Gegenwart relevant, und auch in anderen Kulturräumen?
Es drängt sich der Schluss auf, dass es von zentraler Wichtigkeit ist, diese Fragen zu beleuchten, und dass die Sozialpsychologie das geeignete Fach ist. Denn wenn die Demütigungshypothese gültig wäre, wäre es von ungeheurer Wichtigkeit für die zukünftige Vermeidung von Krieg, die Dynamik der Demütigung besser zu kennen. War die wichtigste Wirkung des Marshallplanes vielleicht die Aufhebung der Demütigung Deutschlands?
Siehe zum Beispiel Sebastian Haffner und Bateson, Der Vertrag von Versailles. Mit Beiträgen von Sebastian Haffner, Gregory Bateson u. a. (München: Matthes und Seitz, 1978), und Norbert Elias, The Germans. Power Struggles and the Development of Habitus in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1996).

Human Rights, Humiliation, and Globalization
In: Ludwig Janus, Florian Galler, and Winfried Kurth (Eds.), Symbolik, gesellschaftliche Irrationalität und Psychohistorie, Jahrbuch für Psychohistorische Forschung (Band 5, Seiten 143-172). Heidelberg, Germany: Mattes Verlag, 2005.
•  This text is a chapter that highlights how human rights ideals together with globalization profoundly impinge on relationships, both globally and locally. This chapter calls attention to how certain psychological phenomena, such as dynamics of humiliation, gain significance, and thus have to be included into any equation of strategy or public policy planning, again, both globally and locally. From a global "war against terror," to regional intractable conflicts, to community problems, as well as interpersonal and intrapersonal conflicts, macro, meso, and microlevels are affected. This paper's SSRN ID is 668762, http://ssrn.com/abstract=668762.
•  Introduction: "Give me liberty or give me death" is a famous quote from a speech made by Patrick Henry to the Virginia House of Burgesses. "Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!"
The speech was given March 23, 1775 in St. John's Church in Richmond, Virginia and is credited with having single-handedly convinced the Virginia House of Burgesses to pass a resolution delivering the Virginia troops to the Revolutionary War. Reportedly, the crowd, upon hearing the speech jumped up and shouted "To Arms! To Arms!" (this example has been kindly provided by Didier Sornette and is retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/).
"Give me liberty or give me death ": This exclamation should amaze every reader. It is a sentence of historic novel­ty and at the same time of deadly sincerity, literally. Consider, if all the down­trodden and op­pressed people during the past centuries - all the slaves, the serfs, the bonded, the under­lings and inferiors - if they had preferred death to their lowly fate: the world would be quite an empty place today! How could it happen that for centuries the underlings of the world accepted - and some still do today - the ab­sence of liberty in their lives without seeking death? And how could it happen that at some point in history the situation changed, and such a sen­tence became possible? And how does the phenomenon of humiliation play in?...
Contents:
•  Einleitung
Die Irrationalität in der Gesellschaft

Anthropologie und Psychohistorie menschlicher Gewaltbereitschaft: Ludwig Janus
Der Gruppenprozess und die Aktienbörse: Florian Galler
Terrorismus, Krieg und soziale Degradierung als Ausagierung destruktiver Wünsche, die von vielen Menschen des Westens geteilt werden: Winfried Kurth
Cleveland and After: Some Thoughts on how UK Society Might Prevent Social Work from Making a Difference: Nigel Leech
• The Police as "A Cntainer": A Finnish Example: Ilkka Levä
Globalisierung und Psyche
• Das Unbehagen in der Globalisierung: Josef Berghold
• Rise and Fall of "Jobs" as a Personal Possession and the Vicissitudes of Possessive Individualism: Juha Siltala
• Human Rights, Humiliation, and Globalization: Evelin Gerda Lindner
Biografik
• Geboren 1914. Eine empirische Mikro-Studie entlang der biographischen Linie des Robert Müller, Schriftsetzer aus Nürnberg: Heinrich Reiß
• Ein Psychogramm: Leben und Werk Ferdinand Piechs: Bernhard Peter
Symbolik
• Die Personalisierung des Symbols im psychohistorischen Raum: Ludwig Janus
• Bedueung der Gegenübertragung in der psychohistorischen Forschung: Alfons Reiter
Geschichte und Zukunft der Psychohistorie
• The Repressed and the Projected in Psychohistory: Juhani Ihanus
• The Ampleforth Protocol "The Future of Psychohistory": contributed by David Wasdell

Referat av Stefan Backe från seminariet "Humiliation as Psychological Risk Factor for Terrorism?"
I: Risknytt nr 1-2005, Tisdag 12 Oktober, 2004/2005.

Humiliation as Psychological Risk Factor for Terrorism
Stockholm: Lecture given at Riskkollegiet / Society of Risk Sciences, invited by Olof Söderberg, 12th October 2004.

Making Enemies Unwittingly: Humiliation and International Conflict
The 2005 draft of the book Making Enemies: Humiliation and International Conflict (published by Praeger in 2006).
See also:
A New Basis for Understanding, Preventing, and Defusing Conflict and Violence in the World and Our Lives
First draft of 2003, see Morton Deutsch's Foreword, 2003.

Humiliation in a Globalizing World: Does Humiliation Become the Most Disruptive Force?
Paper presented at the 2004 Workshop on Humiliation and Violent Conflict, Columbia University, New York City, November 18-19, 2004.
•  Introduction: In order to understand a globalizing world, we need "global" research, as well as the participation of researchers who have a global outlook and global experience. In my case, a specific biography made me acquire a profoundly global perspective and identity. This experiential background has led me to conceptualize psychology in a specific way, first, as being embedded within broader historic and philosophical contexts, second, as being profoundly intertwined with global changes, and third, as currently gaining significance. I avoid single interest scholarship, work transdisciplinary, and probe how even local micro-changes may be embedded within larger global changes.

Nichts zerstört so nachhaltig wie die Demütigung
Für die Ärztin und Psychologin Evelin G. Lindner ist das Phänomen der Demütigung eine Quelle überaus gefährlicher politischer Triebkräfte. Deshalb sucht sie es zu erforschen
Neue Züricher Zeitung, NZZ am Sonntag, 16.05.2004 Nr. 20 Seite 77
Interview: Kathrin Meier-Rust

Gendercide and Humiliation in Honor and Human-Rights Societies
In: Adam Jones (Ed.), Gendercide and Genocide, Chapter Two, pp. 39-61, Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2004.
(This chapter is adapted from Evelin G. Lindner (2002)
Gendercide and Humiliation in Honor and Human Rights Societies
In: Journal of Genocide Research, 4 (1, March 2002), pp. 137-155)
•  Abstract: Adam Jones has attempted to locate genocide within the broader context of male-female relations and this has produced some controversy. In my article I locate his work within a still broader context, namely, the long-term historical transformation under way between the honor code and the ideology of human rights. This transformation is itself to be located within an even broader framework that is the part played by humiliation in societal structure and historic change. Humiliation is a force that lies behind both the killing of others (for example in war), and the killing of oneself (suicide). The article is based on fieldwork in Africa and Europe pertaining to the genocidal killings that took place in Rwanda and Somalia, on the background on German history.
Contents:
•  Editor's Preface
•  Chapter 1:
Gendercide and Genocide by Adam Jones
•  Chapter 2: Gendercide and Humiliation in Honor and Human-Rights Societes by Evelin Gerda Lindner
•  Chapter 3: A Theory of Gendercide by Østein Gullvåg Holter
•  Chapter 4: Gender and Genocide in Rwanda by Adam Jones
•  Chapter 5: Gendercide and Human Rights by David Buchanan
•  Chapter 6: Gendercide in a Historical Structural Context: The Case of Black Male Gendercide in the United States by Augusta D. Del Zotto
•  Chapter 7: Gendercide
•  Chapter 8: Genetic Engineering and Queer Biotechnology: The Eugenics of the Twenty-first Century? by Stefanie S. Rixecker
•  Chapter 9: Geno and Other Cides: A Cautionary Note on Knowledge Accumulation by Stuart Stein
•  Chapter 10: Beyond "Gendercide": Operationalizing Gender in Comparative Genocide Studies by R. Charli Carpenter
•  Chapter 11: Problems of Gendercide: A Response to Stein and Carpenter by Adam Jones
•  Chapter 12: Men and Masculinities in Gendercide/Genocide by Terrell Carver

The Effect of Humiliation on the Escalation of Conflicts
Presentation at the conference 'Activists under Attack: Defending the Right to be a Human Rights Defender', hosted by the Human Rights House Network, 13 - 14 October 2004, Oslo.
•  Deteriorating security and working conditions for human rights defenders are the topic of the conference Activists under Attack: Defending the Right to be a Human Rights Defender, hosted by the Human Rights House Network, 13th -14th October 2004 in Oslo, for which this paper has been prepared.
•  The paper starts out by establishing the link between human rights ideals and the phenomenon of humiliation. Thereafter, the phenomenon of humiliation is addressed, how humiliation is experienced by the individual person, and which consequences such experiences may have for conflict. Lindner describes feelings of humiliation as "the nuclear bomb of the emotions," which might be instrumentalised by "humiliation-entrepreneurs."
Subsequently, current changes in the human rights movement are being discussed. The desire of the human rights movement to build a world where all have the opportunity to live dignified lives – realising the entire plethora of human rights, including social and economic ones – represents an even graver provocation to power elites, who often believe in a just world and thus entitled to their privileges, than ever before. Their reluctance, in turn, triggers disappointment in hopeful believers among the poor and downtrodden. Human rights defenders are thus placed at the center of ubiquitous feelings of disappointment, frustration, anger and mutual humiliation: Elites feel humiliated by calls for new humility, and the downtrodden feel humiliated by empty human rights rhetoric.
Human rights defenders are caught in several ways in the current intensification of the human rights revolution. Firstly, they themselves may cause feelings of humiliation in the recipients of their services out of insensitivity, insensitivity that is both more probable and more obscene in a world of large gaps between rich and poor.
•  Secondly, higher echelons in human rights organisations not seldom undermine the human rights advocacy of their own workers in lower echelons, thus feeding suspicions of humiliating double standards, and leaving their workers discredited and unprotected. The problem here is that the "Realpolitik" of national interests often is incompatible with human rights ideals and, the higher up in ruling structures, the more this "Realpolitik" pushes aside human rights values. This tendency includes organisations that work for human rights, thus introducing a stifling inherent contradiction into their very core.
•  A very complex case of humiliation occurs when victimhood and humiliation are invoked by people who lack humility. In such cases, human rights advocates are caught in that they are obliged to help victims, however, cannot condone solutions that violate human rights. How are human rights defenders to react if asked to support victims who proceed to become new oppressive masters? How are they to respond to allegations that they humiliate victims by not helping them with violent uprisings? Enraged people, invoking victimhood and feeling entitled to violate human rights as a remedy, may emerge as powerful humiliators of human rights defenders.
•  We urgently need to expose the inherent incompatibility between just world thinking and human rights ideals. Furthermore, the current incompatibility between universal human rights ideals and the "Realpolitik" of national interests needs to be resolved and human rights ideals are to be realised at all levels of public policy, particularly at the highest global level.

Psychology for the Global Village
I: Impuls: Tidskrift for psykologi, 1, Psykologi og samfunn, 2004, s. 45-55.
Intervju med Lars Tjelta Westlye.

 

The Theory of Humiliation: A Summary
Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, December 2003.

A Brief Taxonomy of Humiliation
Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, March 2003.

Definitions of Terms As They are Used in Lindner's Writing
Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, March 2003.

Peace? Not As Long As Humiliation Reigns!
In: ICCR Newsletter, January, 2003.
•  The horrific events on September 11, 2001 in the United States shook the world. Osama bin Laden acted as the ultimate humiliator of the western world. Taking down the World Trade Center's Twin Towers, the symbols of western power, was a cruel message of humiliation. Humiliation has to do with "putting down." The word humiliation has at its core "humus," which means "earth" in Latin. Indeed, the Twin Towers were taken down to the level of the ground, into the dust of the earth. Whatever these towers stood for was cruelly "debased" and "denigrated." Both words have the prefix "de-," which signifies "down from" in Latin, down from a great height to the ground. Thousands of innocent victims had to pay with their lives for this "message of humiliation" that was "sent" to the mighty masters of today's world in the act of "taking down" something that was seen to symbolize them, the Twin Towers. This short text presents the relevance of the phenomenon of humiliation for today's global situation.

Humiliation or Dignity: Regional Conflicts in the Global Village
In: The International Journal of Mental Health, Psychosocial Work and Counselling in Areas of Armed Conflict, 1, 1, January, 2003, pp. 48-63.
•  See also the War Trauma Foundation Website, or
• 
See also the website of the Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Research
•  Often regional conflicts are treated as if they are placed in a vacuum, independent of their environment. This paper attempts to put regional conflict regions into the perspective of a globalising world. It is suggested that feelings of humiliation play a central role in this process. Human rights ideals extend dignity to all humankind and prohibit humiliating people as lesser beings. Human rights ideals thus define high goals and consequently create intense feelings of humiliation when violated. Every local conflict is inscribed into the global debate as to how the global village will look like in the future: will human rights reign, or will elites keep underlings in a humiliating position? Expressions that are central to this discourse are discussed in this paper, such as 'protecting my people', 'freedom', 'peace', 'stability', as well as 'war', 'enemies', 'friends', 'terrorists', 'soldiers', and 'police'.
•  Keywords: egalisation, globalisation, human rights, humiliation, reactive devaluation, regional conflict.

Humiliation
By Sara Rosenberg, 2003.
Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Conflict Research Consortium, Intractable Conflict Knowledge Base Project.

A New Basis for Understanding, Preventing, and Defusing Conflict and Violence in the World and Our Lives
First draft of 2003 for the book Making Enemies: Humiliation and International Conflict (published by Praeger in 2006), see Morton Deutsch's Foreword, 2003.
See also the 2005 version Making Enemies Unwittingly: Humiliation and International Conflict.

Ydmykelsens psykologi
Foredrag ved Falstadseminaret 2002: 'Rettsoppgjør og forsoning: Menneskeverd i etterkrigstid', Falstad, Trøndelag, Norway, 9. oktober 2002.
•  In October 1941, Falstad Special school for handicapped boys was taken over by the German occupying power and transferred into SS Strafgefangen-enlager Falstad, a detention camp for political prisoners. Later, Russian POW's were imprisoned here together with Yugoslav partisans and Polish forced labourer's. The camp contained prisoners from 13 countries during the War years. A total of 5000 prisoners were registered at Falstad. Today the The Falstad Memorial and Centre for Human Rights organises a yearly seminar. Stein Ugelvik Larsen, Erik Solheim and Evelin Lindner held talks in the 2002 seminar. Furthermore a documentary film was shown. In this film three former prisoners (who were present in person during the seminar) described how humiliation was the most hurtful pain they suffered. In Lindner's presentation she attempted to link her personal family history (not least as a gesture of humility to the victims present) to her research on humiliation and tragedies such as the Holocaust and Falstad.

Mujeres en la aldea global: Creciente exigencia de los patrones tradicionales de comunicación
In: Ingeborg Breines, Dorota Gierycz, and Betty Reardon (Eds.), Mujeres a Favor De La Paz: Hacia Un Programa De Acción, 2002, pp. 117-129. Paris and Madrid: Ediciones UNESCO, NARCEA Ediciones.

Ydmykelse og konflikt - En nøkkel til å forstå verden og oss selv
I: Psykologisk Tidsskrift - NTNU, 3, 2002, s. 8-10.
•  Denne teksten gir en introduksjon til leseren om forskningen min på ydmykelse. Den ender med følgende paragraf: Margalit (1996) sier i sin bok "A Decent Society" at vi trenger relasjoner og institusjoner som ikke ydmyker mennesker. Jeg tror vi må bygge den slags relasjoner og institusjoner ikke bare nasjonalt men på et internasjonalt nivå, for å skape "a decent global village". Dessuten må vi forme noe konstruktivt ut av sårene som skyldes ydmykelse og sørge for at de ikke gir grobunn for ekstremistiske og krigeriske holdninger. Moderate i alle leire må slå seg sammen og gjøre felles sak. Nelson Mandela er et eksempel til etterfølgelse. Han har snudd offerets ydmykelse til noe positivt, ved å legge 27 år i fengsel bak seg og gå videre uten hevntanker. Vi må prøve å bygge opp flere personligheter som ham.

Gendercide and Humiliation in Honor and Human Rights Societies
In: Journal of Genocide Research, 4 (1, March), 2002, pp. 137-155, www.gendercide.org/affiliates.html.
•  Adam Jones has attempted to locate genocide within the broader context of male-female relations and this has produced some controversy. This article locates not only Jones's insights but also the controversy his work has produced within a still broader context that is the long-term historical transformation under way between the honor code and the ideology of human rights. This transformation from honour to human rights as the standard for evaluating human behaviour is itself to be located within an even broader framework that is the part played by humiliation in societal structure and historic change. Humiliation is a force that lies behind both the killing of others (for example in war), and the killing of oneself (suicide). This paper attempts to scrutinise societal structures in their historic contexts by using the concept of humiliation. It is hoped that this will shed more light on both gendercide and gender-specific patterns of suicide. In both cases, the concern is equally with patterns of causation (why does it happen?) and patterns of evaluation (what is its significance?).

Healing the Cycles of Humiliation: How to attend to the emotional aspects of "unsolvable" conflicts and the use of "humiliation entrepreneurship"
In: Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 8 (2), 2002, pp. 125-139, full text also available at informaworld.
•  This article identifies the dynamics of humiliation as a core agent in conflicts that escalate into cycles of violence, such as terrorism or genocide, where parties feel humiliated and entitled to retaliate with violence. I describe a 4-year research project on the notion of humiliation, which had its starting point in the hypothesis that the humiliation experienced by Germany after the first World War contributed to the outbreak of the second World War. Then I analyze more recent incidents of genocidal killings in Somalia, Rwanda, and Burundi, and conclude with recommendations for healing the cycles of humiliation.

Human Rights and Humiliation
In: The Coexistence Chronicle, 2 (3), 2002, pp. 2-6.

Build the "Global Village" on Ground Zero, Literally!
New York City: Columbia University, draft written for publication in New York Times, 2002.
•  Introduction: Ground Zero is a place of profound sadness and heart breaking sorrow. Its earth is filled with the blood of thousands who lost their lives. For what did these people die? Their deaths seem so meaningless. Could we, the living, give their deaths meaning, even if only postmortem?...

Ydmykelse, ydmykhet og demokrati
I: Sturla Bjerkaker (Ed.), Nordisk demokratihandbok, Oslo: Nordiske forbund for folkeopplysning og voksnes læring, bok i forberedelse, 2002.
•  Denne teksten forbinder min forskning på ydmykelse med refleksjoner om dens relevanse for demokrati. Boken ble ikke publisert, og jeg brukte materialet senere for Bernt Hagtvets 2008 bok om folkemord.

Conversation in 2002 About the Looming Iraq War and the World’s Situation,
Between H., an American, and Evelin Lindner

A White Woman Alone in Africa: Innovative Fieldwork
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, book proposal, 2001
Explanatory cover letter.
•  Brief Introduction: A White Woman Alone in Africa - Innovative Fieldwork will be an agenda-setting intervention in the debate on fieldwork, methodology, and meeting people from other cultures. Its basis is the fieldwork that the author carried out in Africa for her research on the topic of humiliation. Stories from the researcher's travels will be told and accompanied with textboxes that address questions of methodology and cross-cultural psychology.
The central aspect of the book is its contribution to the literature and debate on the methodology of fieldwork. The personal experiences of the researcher as a white woman alone in Africa provide both, exciting stories, and flashlights on the often-underdeveloped focus in Western books on scientific methodology, particularly the problematic idealisation of the detached and so-called objective researcher.
As such, the book can be read as a piece of travelling memoirs in the great tradition of travelling literature from Eilert Sundt to Robert Louis Stevenson, the new and popular Danish author Carsten Jensen, Jeg har sett verden begynne (Jensen, 1998), or Robert D. Kaplan, The Ends of the Earth. A Journey at the Dawn of the 21st Century (Kaplan, 1997), as well as provide invaluable reflections on methodology and cross-cultural encounters.

The Drama of Humiliation, or How to Build Respect and Trust
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, postdoctoral research proposal and book proposal, 2001
•  The Drama of Humiliation will be an agenda-setting intervention in the debate on the peaceful transformation of conflicts and the creation of relationships based on trust and respect instead of mechanisms of humiliation.
Its basis is, among others, the recent fieldwork that the author carried out for her research on the topic of humiliation. The research project had the title The Feeling of Being Humiliated: A Central Theme in Armed Conflicts. The author carried out 216 qualitative interviews, addressing Somalia, Rwanda and Burundi and their history of genocidal killings, on the background of the Holocaust perpetrated in Hitler's Germany. From 1998 to 1999 the interviews took place in Africa (in Hargeisa, capital of Somaliland, in Kigali and other places in Rwanda, in Bujumbura, capital of Burundi, in Nairobi in Kenya, and in Cairo in Egypt), and from 1997 to 2001 also in Europe (in Norway, Germany, Switzerland, France, and in Belgium).
Furthermore the book will draw on material that has been collected by the author through many years of practical intercultural experience and research in a variety of fields. The author is a psychologist and physician, and has a history of working and studying in different cultures. For seven years, from 1984-1991, she worked as a psychological counsellor in Cairo, Egypt. Her medical and psychological studies (1974-1984) she carried out in New Zealand, China, Thailand, Germany, Norway, USA, Israel, on a training ship to West Africa.
Two initial observations triggered the author's interest in the topic of humiliation.
The author's experience as clinical psychologist (1980-84 in Germany, 1984-1991 in Egypt) indicated that humiliation is of crucial importance in human relations, both as act and experience, and that cycles of humiliation may permeate people's lives with an all-consuming intensity. Vogel & Lazare, 1990, illustrate this point in 'The Unforgivable Humiliation - a Dilemma in Couples Treatment.' The severity of rifts caused by humiliation to be observed between people called for research.
Furthermore, it is often assumed, that the humiliation of the Germans through the Versailles Treaties after World War I was partly responsible for the Holocaust and the Second World War (see, for example, Haffner & Bateson, 1978, Elias, 1996). It seemed therefore very important to understand the nature of humiliation and how it is related to the occurrence of genocide and mass violence. Work by Scheff, 1990, Staub, 1989, Volkan, 1997, or Rapoport, 1997, addresses parts of the dynamics that pertain to humiliation, but humiliation is normally not differentiated from other notions such as, for example, shame, or trauma. Smedslund, 1997 and worked on common sense definitions of psychological notions such as anger or respect, while Ross & Ward, 1995 worked on naïve realism and psychological barriers to conflict resolution. Based on their work it seemed important to focus on the notion of humiliation and differentiate it from other concepts.
The book will be organised in three main parts that are preceded by an introductory section and a closing chapter with concluding remarks.

The Faces of Humiliation
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, postdoctoral research proposal, 2001
•  Project Summary: The grant applicant has recently earned a doctoral degree in psychology from Oslo University (dr. psychol., 26th May 2001) on the basis of her research – much of which was conducted in Rwanda and Somalia – on humiliation as a factor in violent conflicts. The nature of the topic and circumstances of this research required the applicant both to employ a broad multidisciplinary prospect and to develop innovative survey and interview techniques that encouraged people of varying social strata to talk comfortably about their beliefs, feelings, and experiences. Both the scholarly papers and the more popular articles that have resulted from this work have been well-received, and there is reason to believe (because of the comments of colleagues who have commented on this work) that the applicant’s efforts have helped to give the topic of humiliation a more prominent place on the academic agenda. The task at hand involves the further development and dissemination of this work, with the ultimate goal being a more comprehensive theoretical treatment of the sources, and the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intergroup consequences of humiliation. This will include the further evaluation of the interview material on humiliation that has been collected during the past four years. This material will be supplemented with new material where necessary. The current plan calls for three foci, ranging from the ‘micro’ to ‘macro’ level of analysis. One focus will address ‘Humiliation in the Family,’ a second will examine ‘Humiliation in Organisations,’ and a third analysis will return to the topic of ‘Humiliation in National and International Conflicts.’ Three books and several papers are planned to address each of these foci, supplementing and complimenting the 17 articles already completed by the applicant and in various stages of the publication process.

Moratorium on Humiliation: Cultural and "Human Factor" Dimensions Underlying Structural Violence
New York City: Discussion paper presented at the Expert Group Meeting on Structural Threats to Social Integration: Indicators for Conflict Prevention, Session 2: Structural threats to social integrity 18th - 20th December 2001, New York City, organized by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Social Integration Branch, see www.un.org/esa/socdev.
•  This paper spells out ten issues regarding the cultural and "human factor" dimensions underlying structural violence with particular emphasis on the notion of humiliation. It discusses the ways feelings of humiliation are involved and gives recommendations to the United Nations of how to address these dimensions.

Ydmykelse: Følelsenes atombombe (Humiliation: The Atomic Bomb of the Feelings), ved Marit Hammersmark
I: Apollon: Forskningsmagasin for Universitetet i Oslo, 4, 2001, se www.apollon.uio.no/2001_4/artikler/ydmykelse.shtml.

Humiliation As the Source of Terrorism: A New Paradigm
In: Peace Research: The Canadian Journal Of Peace Studies, 33 (2), 2001, pp. 59-68.
•  This paper has been written in the aftermath of the 11 th September. It claims that basically all human beings yearn for recognition and respect, denial or withdrawal of which is experienced as humiliation. Humiliation is suggested to be the strongest force that creates rifts between people and breaks down relationships. The desire for recognition is described as universal that unites all human beings and can serve as a platform for contact and cooperation. Ethnic, religious or cultural differences do not by themselves create rifts. On the contrary, diversity can be a source of mutual enrichment but only when diversity is embedded within relationships characterized by mutual respect. When respect and recognition are absent, however, those who feel victimized by humiliation are prone to highlight differences, and may be prone to use violence. The paper presents cases of young people, both young Palestinians and Germans, who were caught in dynamics of humiliation.

Women and Terrorism: The Lessons of Humiliation
In: New Routes: A Journal for Peace Research and Action. Special Issue: Targeting Women, 6 (3), 2001, pp. 10-12,
www.life-peace.org/newroutes.
•  Also RBSE, v.1, n.1, pp.76-92, João Pessoa, GREM, abril de 2002, on
www.rbse.rg3.net (as artigo ISSN 1676-8965).
•  Lindner addresses the dynamics of humiliation in their interplay with terrorism. The paper is built on four years of research on the phenomenon of humiliation, as well as more than twenty years of practical experience as a psychologist in Europe, the Middle East and Africa.
Contents:
•  3 Editorial: Victims and actors
•  4 Gender and war by Anna T. Höglund takes a theological and ethical approach.
•  10 The lessons of humiliation by Evelin Lindner addresses the dynamics of humiliation.
•  13 Gender dimensions of internal displacement by Laurel Patterson gives her perspectives from Southern Africa.
•  16 The case of refugees by Elisabeth Ferris at the World Council of Churches reports on refugees.
•  17 Human security through a gendered lens by Bernedette Muthien investigates the meaning of security.
•  20 Women and conflict by Jasmina Tesanovic gives a Serbian perspective.
•  24 Peacemakers in the Middle East by Virginia Baron reflects on developments in the Middle East.
•  28 Women and peace in the United Nations by Sara Poehlman-Doumbouya and Felicity Hill present the road to a ”historic” UN resolution.
•  33 Highlighting LPI research by Leyla-Claude Werleigh summarizes the project: Women, violence and non-violent actions.
•  35 Conflict resolution in Somaliland by Amina Mohamoud Warsome shows women in the forefront.

Women and Terrorism: The Lessons of Humiliation
Paper given at the 'Conference on Social and Community Psychology', University of Trondheim (NTNU), Department of Psychology, 9th October 2001.
This paper addresses the dynamics of humiliation in their interplay with terrorism. It searches for the ¿why¿ behind terrorism and highlights the role of women in this context. It is built on four years of research on the phenomenon of humiliation, as well as more than twenty years of practical experience as a psychologist in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Alternative ways of responding to humiliation are suggested and third parties are called upon to increase their engagement.

Die Psychologie der Demütigung
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, deutsche Zusammenfassung des englischen Originals, 2001.
Siehe hier eine Kurzfassung.

The Psychology of Humiliation - Summary of Results and What the Research on Humiliation Added to Pre-Existing Knowledge
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, 2001.
In: The Canadian Centres for Teaching Peace.
•  Read a Spanish summary / versión Española (translated to Spanish by Sara Horowitz).
•  This text is a summary of the research on humiliation that has been carried out at the Department of Psychology at the University of Oslo from 1997-2001. The project was entitled The Feeling of Being Humiliated: A Central Theme in Armed Conflicts. A Study of the Role of Humiliation in Somalia, and Rwanda/Burundi, Between the Warring Parties, and in Relation to Third Intervening Parties. 216 qualitative interviews were carried out by the author, addressing Somalia, Rwanda and Burundi and their history of genocidal killings. From 1998 to 1999 the interviews were carried out in Africa (in Hargeisa, capital of Somaliland, in Kigali and other places in Rwanda, in Bujumbura, capital of Burundi, in Nairobi in Kenya, and in Cairo in Egypt), and from 1997 to 2001 also in Europe (in Norway, Germany, Switzerland, France, and in Belgium). The results of the four-year research project on humiliation (1997-2001) are summarised and policy relevant recommendations listed that may be fruitful for future peace efforts in conflict regions around the world, as well as assist in the conceptualisation and strategic planning of future social change.

Die 'emotionale Bombe' besitzt grosse Sprengkraft. Völker vergessen keine erlittene Erniedrigung - und rächen sich bei passender Gelegenheit oft erbarmungslos. Viele Gesellschaften in schweren Krisen sind anfällig für Gewalt - Kongress über psychohistorische Forschung in Nürnberg
by Gabi Pfeiffer, Nürnberger Nachrichten, 24th July, 2001, p. 21.
See as picture.

Psychohistory and the Psychodynamics of Humiliation
Nürnberg, Germany: Lecture given on 5th July 2001 at the conference "Nürnberg '01: The Historical Motivations Congress in Europe," at the German-American Institute (DAI), and the Lutheran University for Applied Science, Nuremberg, Germany / Tagung "Nürnberg 2001: Der internationale Kongress über Motivationen in der Geschichte," an dem Deutsch-Amerikanischen Institut (DAI) und der Evangelischen Fachhochschule Nürnberg, organized by Jerrold Atlas, Center for Psychohistorical Studies, Long Island University, Brooklyn, New York, 5th - 7th July 2001. See the report of the conference / Bericht der Tagung, by Winfried Kurth and Oskar Sahlberg (see the orginal link).
•  Humiliation has a particularly significant importance for understanding motivations and it is an essential part of psychohistorical explanation. It is, for example, widely assumed that the humiliation of the Germans through the Versailles Treaties after World War I was partly responsible for the Holocaust and the Second World War. During the past four years, she has carried out research on humiliation and has studied Somalia and Rwanda / Burundi on the background of German history. The project breaks new ground, among others, in its effort to be truly interdisciplinary, incorporating in its methodology aspects not only of cultural psychology, social psychology and anthropology, but also history, philosophy and even literary analysis. Furthermore, it features an unusual specific methodology, a reflective approach to interviewing that avoids humiliating interlocutors. The research essentially weaves a kind of tapestry around the central theme of humiliation in its many manifestations (some obvious, but some rather subtle and non-obvious) in three different genocides involving three very different cultures. Lindner shares the results of her research and gives an outlook over policy recommendations as to how prevent future cycles of humiliation and address the wounds that have been caused by past processes of humiliation.

Gender Violence and Humiliation
Nürnberg, Germany: Lecture given on 6th July 2001 at the conference "Nürnberg '01: The Historical Motivations Congress in Europe," at the German-American Institute (DAI), and the Lutheran University for Applied Science, Nuremberg, Germany / Tagung "Nürnberg 2001: Der internationale Kongress über Motivationen in der Geschichte," an dem Deutsch-Amerikanischen Institut (DAI) und der Evangelischen Fachhochschule Nürnberg, organized by Jerrold Atlas, Center for Psychohistorical Studies, Long Island University, Brooklyn, New York, 5th - 7th July 2001. See the report of the conference / Bericht der Tagung, by Winfried Kurth and Oskar Sahlberg (see the orginal link).
•  This paper gives an overview over the transition from the legal doctrine of coverture (where it was codified that women are second-class citizens and the husband has a write to beat his wife) to the term "gender violence" that emerged only very recently in human history, and is meaningful only on the background of human rights ideals. The paper illustrates how women traditionally were confined to the "inside," while men were guardians of the border to the "outside," and that the current emergence of a global village signifies the disappearance of the "outside" together with it the dissolution of the traditional division of male and female spheres. The paper draws attention to the fact that new societal institutions, cultural codes, forms of communication and definitions of love and friendship become necessary in this new environment. See also: 'Nürnberg 2001: Der internationale Kongress über Motivationen in der Geschichte,' Bericht von Winfried Kurth und Oskar N. Sahlberg über die Tagung 'Nürnberg'01: The Historical Motivations Congress in Europe' vom 5. bis 7. Juli 2001 am Deutsch-Amerikanischen Institut und an der Evangelischen Fachhochschule Nürnberg, die von Prof. Dr. Jerrold Atlas (Long Island University, Brooklyn, New York; Center for Psychohistorical Studies) organisiert und geleitet wurde.

Humiliation and the Human Condition: Mapping a Minefield
In: Human Rights Review, 2 (2), 2001, pp.46-63 (Human Rights Review was later renamed to The Journal of Human Rights). doi: 10.1007/s12142-001-1023-5
•  A major cause of socio-political violence is the social process of humiliation, whose main elements are closely related to central aspects of the cultural repertoire of complex societies. This paper presents a theory of humiliation, showing that the capacity to humiliate and be humiliated are aspects of a dense web of 'hot' filaments wired into the tissue of culture, giving it a potentially explosive character that is too little recognised. This paper probes this dense web and explores how it acquired its present character. It is shown that our conceptualisation of humiliation has changed as our sense of human dignity has grown. Humiliation should be understood as not simply an extreme or marginal condition but a central feature of the social order. Viewed within this broader context, the elements that constitute humiliation should be recognised as fundamental mechanisms in the formation of modern society.

Humiliation - Trauma that Has Been Overlooked: An Analysis Based on Fieldwork in Germany, Rwanda / Burundi, and Somalia
In: TRAUMATOLOGYe, 7 (1), 2001, Article 3 (32 pages), see http://tmt.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/7/1/43, or www.fsu.edu/%7Etrauma/v7/Humiliation.pdf.
•  What differentiates trauma from humiliation? This is one of the questions this article tries to answer. Trauma may occur without humiliation, as in the case of natural disaster, however, humiliation may be the core agent of trauma. Furthermore, this paper suggests that the role and significance of humiliation for traumatic experiences has long been overlooked by researchers and practitioners. The paper highlights the macro-historical backdrop for this neglect. It is the unfolding of human rights as opposed to more traditional honour codes at all levels of society both national and international. This change is a major force in making the category of trauma increasingly important, and in moving such practices as 'breaking the will of the child,' that were once legitimate and even prescribed, into the category of trauma. The paper also addresses the fact that social science is part of this transition and would benefit from making more visible how it is deeply interlinked with this process.

L’humiliation, et la promotion du respect et de la solidarité
Paris: Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, sujet de recherche post-doctoral, 2001.

How Research Can Humiliate: Critical Reflections on Method
In: Journal for the Study of Peace and Conflict, Annual Edition 2001-2002, pp. 16-36.
•  This paper addresses the question of research methodology and how it may contribute to deepening rifts instead of healing them. The paper describes how the author's research experience in the field led to an on-the-spot revision of methodology. The research project concerns the role played by humiliation in armed conflicts. Ironically, the researcher discovered that the methodology initially attempted was itself humiliating to the people being questioned. Furthermore, it was humiliating for the researcher to discover this. As a consequence of this discovery, a very rapid learning process occurred, guided by a commitment to achieving a dialogue about experiences and feelings that was as authentic and open as possible. The paper plots this process of discovering the humiliating effect that certain social psychological methods may have, especially in cross-cultural contexts with a colonial backdrop and within populations that have suffered greatly from war and genocide.

The Concept of Humiliation: Its Universal Core and Culture-Dependent Periphery
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, 2001.
•  This article argues that the concept of humiliation may be deconstructed into seven layers, including a) a core that expresses the universal idea of 'putting down,' b) a middle layer that contains two opposed orientations towards 'putting down,' treating it as, respectively, legitimate and routine, or illegitimate and traumatising, and c) a periphery whose distinctive layers include one pertaining to cultural differences between groups and another four peripheral layers that relate to differences in individual personalities and variations in patterns of individual experiences of humiliation.

Towards a Theory of Humiliation: Somalia, Rwanda / Burundi, and Hitler’s Germany
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, draft for Habilitation submitted to the University of Regensburg, Germany, Department of Psychology, October 2001.
•  See also On Globalisation and Quality of Life.
•  Read furthermore a Summary in German.
•  Read furthermore a Description of the Habilitation Draft for Publishers.

Were Hitler and Siad Barre 'Robin Hoods' Who Felt Humiliated by Their Own Followers? (Part One and Two)
I: Medlemsblad for Norske Leger Mot Atomvåpen, Med Bidrag Fra Psykologer for Fred, 2000, nr. 3, november, s. 20-25, og 2001, nr. 1, februar/mars, s. 20-23.
•  'When Democracy Fails, the Stage Is Prepared for a Dictator': this is the introductory headline of this text. It probes the hypothesis that Hitler, as well as Siad Barre in Somalia began their 'career' as 'saviours' or 'Robin Hood' figures who lifted up the spirits particularly of the 'little people.' Later, when destruction engulfed Germany, or Somalia, not only the 'little people' felt disappointed by their saviour, but, surprisingly enough, also the dictator himself felt let down by his followers. The hypothesis is examined whether such a dictator has a history of personal humiliation in his biography, a history that makes him able to attract the masses on one side, however, makes him on the other side unable to lead them constructively.

Were Ordinary Germans Hitler's 'Willing Executioners'? Or Were They Victims of Humiliating Seduction and Abandonment? The Case of Germany and Somalia
In: IDEA: A Journal of Social Issues, 5 (1), 2000, www.ideajournal.com/articles.php?id=31.
Perhaps re-published in 2012 in the Web magazine GPN Genocide Prevention Now, either the Issue 11 or Issue 12.
•  This article presents findings from fieldwork in Africa (1998, 1999) and Germany (1994-2000). It includes a detailed discussion of Hitler's views about propaganda and his use of this instrument to seduce the masses. It concludes that present-day Germans suffer feelings of humiliation and anger not only at having lost World War II (and in some cases at being labelled accomplices in genocide) but also at having been 'taken in' by Hitler, and by their own desire to participate in the strong and positive feelings he created among the people at large. A similar chain of events unfolded in the case of the Somalian population in relation to the late dictator Siad Barre. It is argued that the feelings of humiliation and resentment experienced by many Germans and Somalis are similar in important respects to the feelings many women and some men experience when they have been 'taken in' by a suitor who seduces and then cruelly disappoints them.

Were the Germans Hitler's 'Willing Executioners'?
I: Medlemsbladet for Norske leger mot atomvåpen, med bidrag fra psykologer for fred, nr. 2, juni 2000, s. 26-29.
•  Germany is currently undergoing a period of 'working through’ the 'Nazizeit’ [Nazi period]. Documentaries fill German TV screens, and 'Zeitzeugen’ [witnesses of history] are interviewed before they die and it is too late. Everywhere, in private homes as in TV chat shows, people are beginning to talk, people who have been almost completely silent for over 50 years.
The paper presents findings from fieldwork in Germany in April 2000 that indicate that one of the sorest humiliations felt today by many Germans who lived in Hitler’s Germany seems to be the humiliation they suffered as a result of their own beliefs: 'We were told that our Sold [pay] would help Germany win the Endsieg, and that we would get it afterwards! I believed that! This is so humiliating! You cannot imagine!’
The paper links the humiliation felt by Germans caused by their own loyalty to Hitler with a case from family therapy where a woman feels humiliated by her own feelings of love and loyalty to a man who exploited her. The suggestion is made that the fundamental mechanisms at work are very similar in the two cases. The aim of the research is to build a theory of humiliation that encompasses all relations, from the national to the individual level. This text is an introduction to the endeavour of building this theory.

Hitler, Shame and Humiliation: The Intricate Web of Feelings Among the German Population Towards Hitler
I: Medlemsbladet for Norske leger mot atomvåpen, med bidrag fra psykologer for fred, nr. 1, februar 2000, s. 28-30.
•  This paper addresses the intricate web of feelings among the German population towards Hitler. It is argued that the 'little people’ or 'broad masses’ were routinely humiliated in the hierarchical structure of German society before and after World War I, and that they were lifted up by Hitler insofar as he gave them a sense of importance and purpose. It was only after the 'Zusammenbruch’ after World War II that they slowly and painfully recognised that he had abused their gratitude and loyalty.
The aristocracy on the other hand had initially hoped that Hitler would become their puppet to regain national honour. They underestimated him and were humiliated by the fact that he was much more successful than expected and they had to bow to him.
During the war Hitler was a reason for pride among the 'broad masses’ but a source of humiliation for the aristocracy. However, after World War II, nobody could be proud. Humiliation was not a public phenomenon as it was after World War I, when a proud nation had been brought to its knees. After World War II humiliation was an inner experience felt by
individuals. Every follower of Hitler must have felt humiliated by their own adherence to Hitler: the 'little people’ for allowing a dangerous and dubious character like Hitler capture their hearts, the aristocracy for letting it happen.

How Globalisation Transforms Gender Relations: The Changing Face of Humiliation
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, 2000.
•  This paper explores the idea that there is a link between prospects for peace and constructive co-operation in two kinds of relationships: the relations between nations and ethnic groups in the global arena, and the relations between men and women in the many contexts of everyday life. As key link between these two spheres the process of humiliation is discussed, and changes in the way this process occurs. Humiliation means the lowering of a person or group against their will. The object of the paper is to present a hypothesis that may guide research and inform understanding. The hypothesis is presented in the form of a narrative about the link between relations between societies, and relations between men and women. The background of this paper is a social-psychological research project being carried out at the University of Oslo with the aim to better understand the notion of humiliation.

The Relational Anatomy of Humiliation: Perpetrator, Victim, and Third Party
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, 2000.
•  The aim of this paper is to map the conceptual space of the process of humiliation and illustrate it on the personal and group level. It describes humiliation in the framework of Kenneth Gergen’s Vygotskian conceptualisation of emotions as elements within relational scenarios, and as actions that gain their intelligibility and necessity from patterns of interchange. It is shown that, in cases of humiliation, on one side there is the active party, the one who humiliates or is, at least, perceived as humiliating, and on the other side there is the party who feels humiliated, rightly or wrongly. The relationship between these two parties may vary in many ways. In some cases, the humiliator may humiliate intentionally, with a variety of possible objectives, and the targeted person may feel humiliated or, alternatively, may remain untouched. In other cases, someone may feel humiliated even though no-one has actually intended to bring about that effect. This may be seen, for example, in cases where help is given and this help is itself perceived as humiliating by the recipient. Finally, it is shown that third parties may perceive cases of humiliation in several ways and may make a range of different normative judgements.

The Anatomy of Humiliation and Its Relational Character: The Case of the Victim
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, 2000.
•  The object of this paper is to map the conceptual space of humiliation understood as an emotion and a social process occurring within a network of social relationships. A typology of humiliation is presented that summarises in a systematic way certain aspects of the character of humiliation as inscribed within the dynamics of interpersonal relationships. The research upon which this article is was focused upon an attempt to understand the contribution made by humiliation to the occurrence of genocide and mass violence and, more generally, the relationship between humiliation and culture.

The "Framing Power" of International Organizations, and the Cost of Humiliation
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, 2000.
•  See also in Coalition for Global Solidarity and Social Development - Peace and Conflicts, at http://globalsolidarity.transcend.org/articles/the.pdf.
•  The analysis undertaken in this paper introduces social psychological research into the domain of global governance. The paper addresses the question: 'What is the framing power contained in the empirical reality of globalization?' I will present research on the Prisoners' Dilemma to illustrate the powerful force of 'framing.' This force is played out not only in experimental settings but also in real life. I demonstrate that the growing interdependence of the global village has increased the influence of an inherently constructive Community logic. I argue that this logic may be replaced by an inherently destructive Wallstreet logic as a result of the process of humiliation. Two sources of humiliation are identified, namely inequality and the 'loss of face' in international relations. I conclude that multilateralism and international organizations should become more aware of their power to frame relationships within the global context in terms of Community logic. If they use this power purposefully, this will then influence global and local decision-making in a way that advances a benign form of globalization built on human rights.

What Every Negotiator Ought to Know: Understanding Humiliation
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, 2000.
• 
See also in Coalition for Global Solidarity and Social Development - Peace and Conflicts: at http://globalsolidarity.transcend.org/articles/what.pdf.
•  This paper presents a theory of humiliation and identifies its significance as an interpretative tool for use by negotiators in many kinds of situations. Humiliation and its aftermath have an important impact upon patterns of conflict, culture and communication. The paper is organised in three parts. In the first part, following a brief introductory comparison between Hitler and Mandela, a sympathetic critique is undertaken of William Ury's discussion of the socio-historical roots of conflict and strategies for handling it. In the second part, it is argued that the structures and processes identified by Ury may be further illuminated by identifying the part played by humiliation. This is then done, drawing upon the author's research experience in Rwanda, Burundi and Somalia. The origins, characteristics and consequences of humiliation are examined, distinguishing between the forms it takes in three kinds of society: 'pride' societies, 'honour' societies' and 'dignity' societies. Particular attention is given to the impact of the Human Rights Revolution. In the final part, the paper returns briefly to the comparison between Hitler and Mandela, identifies the challenges that humiliation and its aftermath pose for negotiators, and suggests how these challenges might be met.

Recognition or Humiliation - The Psychology of Intercultural Communication
Bergen, Norway: Proceedings of the ISSEI Millennium conference 'Approaching a New Millennium: Lessons from the Past - Prospects for the Future,' the 7th Conference of the International Society for the Study of European Ideas, Bergen, Norway, 14th - 18th August, 2000.
•  In the case of conflicts between members of different cultures: which should be respected, the other culture or the other person? The article will put forward the following answer. What I have to recognise, acknowledge and respect is the other person and not his or her membership in 'another' culture, and this is because each individual has her personal dignity. The other 'culture' may be a reason of pride, but may also be a cause or a product of humiliation. Intercultural communication must include an analysis of power relations and probe whether past incidents of humiliation may be a source of 'culture difference.' If this is so, respect and recognition entails an obligation to heal this humiliation. 'Respecting' 'culture difference' for its own sake may compound past humiliations by adding further humiliation.

Humiliation and Rationality in International Relations: The Role of Humiliation in North Korea, Rwanda, Somalia, Germany, and the Global Village
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, 2000.
•  To what extent are humans rational profit-maximising beings? This is the question this article addresses by examining North Korea, Rwanda/Burundi, Somalia, Germany, and the so-called global village. It is argued that feelings of humiliation are potent forces that limit decision making to short-term rationality, and furthermore entice actors to severely reduce the size of their reference group. This article is relevant for national and global decision makers. It is especially interesting for policy strategists tackling the future of the global village. If we follow the logic expounded in this article, the West must be aware of a danger looming from the humiliated poor, or at least from their representatives. In view of the danger that, for example, a new Hitler would present, the West is fortunate that the influence and prestige of Nelson Mandela are so great.

How Humiliation Creates Cultural Differences and Political Divisions:
The Psychology of Intercultural Communication – Germany, Somalia, Rwanda/Burundi, and the International Community as Cases

Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, 2000.
•  This paper is part of a broader attempt to establish humiliation as a psychological concept. It hypothesises that many cultural differences and subsequent political divisions may be secondary to humiliation. It is argued that when people feel humiliated they construct and deepen difference and division where there was none or little before. It is not disputed that respect for cultural difference and diversity ought to be strengthened in the global society. But the paper warns that the opposite approach, namely an idolisation of diversity and otherness, is just as detrimental in instances where cultural differences stem from humiliation. Such differences require reconciliation, not idolisation misunderstood as respect. Cases illustrating the argument are Germany and Somalia, based on research from 1997-2000 in Somalia and Germany about humiliation, Holocaust and genocide.

Social Constructionism, Logical Positivism, and the Story of Humiliation
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, 2000
•  This paper explores possible historical connections between the development of philosophical positions and changes in the character and extent of psychologically and sociologically embedded dynamics of humiliation within societies. Particular attention is paid to the philosophical perspectives adopted by logical positivism and social constructionism. The trajectory from logical positivism to social constructionism is inscribed within a historical unfolding of revolutions such as the Enlightenment that dethroned oppressive masters – within the realm of the nation as much as in the domain of epistemology – and that, finally, toppled hierarchy itself. The article proposes that historical uprisings against humiliation, carried out with passion, may explain much of current antagonisms between different epistemological schools.

Globalisation and Humiliation: Towards a New Paradigm
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, 2000.
See also Lindner, E. G. (2000) "Globalisation and Humiliation: Towards a New Paradigm." Berlin, Douala, Windhoek: AfricAvenir International.
•  This paper argues that an effective strategy for promoting peace in conditions of globalisation depends upon making an accurate assessment of benign (peace-promoting) and malign (peace-obstructing) tendencies at work in two areas: firstly, the sphere of science and technology; and, secondly, the development of relations between human groups. It is argued that the benign consequences of science and technology may be inhibited and undermined by certain malign tendencies in human relations. In this latter respect, particular emphasis is placed upon the destructive tendencies associated with humiliation. It is further argued that the more widespread the influence of the orientation towards knowledge described here as 'the epistemological revolution,' the greater the chances for the development of a situation in which benign tendencies in human relations coincide with and reinforce benign tendencies in science and technology. The argument of the paper is compared with the contrasting position to be found in the works of major exponents of critical theory such as Adorno and Habermas.

Humiliation in the Flesh. Honour Is "FACE," Arrogance Is "NOSE UP," and Humiliation Is "TO BE PUT DOWN"
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, 2000.
•  This paper plays out the dynamics of humiliation within the framework of Lakoff and Johnson's work on metaphor. The article discusses the question to what extent humiliation may be stable and universal and to what extent culture-dependent, and maps some instantiations of humiliation and ways to respond to it. In the first part of the article the concept of humiliation is discussed in two ways. First the universal and stable core of the concept of humiliation is addressed, showing that every human being knows what humiliation is, and secondly the culture-dependent periphery is attended to, focusing on the different meanings of humiliation in those societies that are based on honour and domination, and those that are based on human rights. The second part of the article presents cases of humiliation and ways to respond to it. Nelson Mandela's innovative way of avoiding violent counter-humiliation of his humiliators receives special attention.

Humiliation, Rape and Love: Force and Fraud in the Erogenous Zones
'Force and fraud are in war the two cardinal virtues’
(Hobbes in 'Leviathan’)
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, 2000.
•  See here first and longer version.
•  This paper is about the intersection between war, sexuality and gender. It encompasses micro-social relations and macro-social structures and integrates several theoretical and disciplinary traditions (social psychology, sociology, anthropology, philosophy, feminism, history and international relations) Its object is to discern the logic of male-female relations expressed in
two kinds of society: those societies that accept the standards associated with human rights and those societies based upon the principle of honour that reject or are unfamiliar with human rights as a framework for living. The paper brings to visibility the meta-logic of humiliation that informs these two frameworks based, respectively, upon the idea of human rights and the idea of honour. Once this meta-logic has been understood, it allows strong links to be seen between public and private spheres: on the one hand, the arena of warfare between nations and ethnic groups, on the other hand, the arena of love and sexuality between individuals.

Humiliation, Human Rights, and Global Corporate Responsibility
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, 2000
•  This article starts out from the suggestion that global social policy would benefit from more corporate awareness of the necessity of their responsible involvement. The typical response to such a proposition is that the corporate sector is not interested in charity, but in earning money. This paper suggests that the corporate sector has, in fact, an interest in incorporating more social responsibility into its strategic thinking, and that it will especially benefit from learning more about the process of humiliation, because the effects of feelings of humiliation hamper not only society at large but also corporate activities. The article demonstrates the significance of humiliation as central pillar of the old autocratic management style and shows how humiliation is undermining corporate efficiency as soon as creative networks are expected to function in today’s knowledge society. The paper analyses the role of humiliation in corporate relationships and highlights especially the humiliating affect of poverty on those who would like to participate in the market. The article closes with reflections on possible research and social policies agendas.

Humiliation and How to Respond to It: Spatial Metaphor in Action
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, 2000.
•  Abstract: This paper plays out the dynamics of humiliation within the framework of Lakoff’s and Johnson’s work on metaphor, combined with a Grounded Theory and a Psycho-Logic rationale. Humiliation may be responded to within four categories of reactions: i) Humiliation may be accepted, ii) it may be responded to with depression, iii) it may be countered with aggression, or iv) it may be reacted to with the elimination of the humiliators, either by annihilating their significance, or their physical existence, or by an unexpected method, namely by gaining their respect. The last method is the only one that yields lasting peace. A Nelson Mandela and a Mahatma Gandhi stand for this alternative. Instead of killing and annihilating his humiliators, Mandela succeeded in convincing them that they ought to discontinue their humiliation, thus ‘undermining’ the gruesome paradigm of humiliation. This extraordinary psychological innovation needs to be better understood so that it can be applied in other parts of the world where similar situations search for solutions. By presenting the possible responses to humiliation in their spatial metaphorical form as they occur in common-sense psychology, this paper hopes to contribute to the urgent learning process concerning humiliation, in order to prepare for its future prevention and healing.

Interview Material Collected in Connection with the Research Project 'The Feeling of Humiliation' from 1997 to 2001, Comprising 100 Hours of Interviews on Audio Tape, 10 Hours of Digital Video Film, and Extensive Notes
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, unpublished raw data.

What Is a Good Life - Comparison Between Egypt and Germany
Manuscript presented at the Middle East Virtual Community (MEViC), first MEViC online Internet conference, 2000, on the basis of Doctoral Dissertation in Medicine (1994).
•  For about fifteen years an ever-increasing number of studies about quality of life has been produced in medical contexts. In most cases, patients of Western cultures are asked how they define quality of life for themselves. Two levels of target groups are usually not incorporated: firstly exclusively the patients' definition of quality of life is examined, not the doctors', and secondly usually only Western cultures are considered and non-Western cultures neglected. The here described study starts at exactly these points. 100 German and 50 Egyptian physicians were asked how they define quality of life for themselves and which aspects of life and health are important to them. They were asked also how they think their patients define quality of life. As points of reference journalists and artists were interviewed - 65 journalists and 45 artists on the German side and 10 journalists and 10 artists on the Egyptian side. The differences discovered can be summarized as follows: t The German as well as the Egyptian physicians consider themselves as being rather "responsible", whereas they judge their patients as being more "superficial". t In Egypt a combination of religion and the desire for modern technology is connected with the term quality of life, whereas in Germany social peace and a critical attitude towards modern technology are prominent.

Co-verse instead of Di-vorce, Core-partners and Co-partners in Top Positions: A New Paradigm for Family and Work
Oslo: Book proposal, 2000
•  Brief synopsis: Love and marriage: this combination is the recipe for great hopes and painful failures. Children are born and later suffering in destructive divorce wars. Women and men are being broken down, they lose self-esteem, and believe that they are failures. How can this be avoided? Can we go back to old times where marriage was a contract with duties and rights? Do we need to teach ourselves more self-control in abiding by strict moral rules?

The Death of the West and How to Avoid It
Oslo: Book proposal by Evelin Lindner and Dennis Smith, 2000
•  Brief Synopsis: The Age of the West is coming to an end. This is a dangerous time. The West dominated the world for the past five hundred years. It has left a huge legacy of bitterness. The power of the West was humiliating for the rest of the world. Now the rest of world is catching up with the West. They want the West’s technology but not its arrogance. The West is becoming a target for the hatred of humiliated people throughout the rest of the world. Terrorist attacks are a symptom of this. The great danger is a cycle of escalating violence
The world faces the choice between violent self-destruction and a constructive search for lasting peace. So far, we have learned too slowly. In Europe the cycle of humiliation and revenge led to Nazism, the Holocaust and the Second World War. Later, the outcome was ethnic cleansing and war in Bosnia and Kosovo. Far better to follow the example of South Africa and begin a process of truth and reconciliation.
If we don’t learn to heal the wounds of humiliation then the story of Europe in the twentieth century is likely to be repeated on a global scale in the twenty-first. The West is holding a tiger by the tail. When it is forced to let go, how will it avoid the tiger's teeth?
In The Death of the West and How to Avoid It Evelin Lindner and Dennis Smith explore the powerful but widely misunderstood part played by humiliation in human affairs. They survey evidence from Asia, Africa, America and Europe to investigate the causes and consequences of humiliation. They argue that the nature of humiliation has changed through history, and suggest ways in which humiliation has shaped the modern world and may yet destroy it. Drawing upon this analysis, Lindner and Smith propose a strategy for avoiding the cycle of violent conflict that threatens to dehumanise global society.

Transnational Corporations and the Global Poor: From Humiliation to Dialogue
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, postdoctoral research proposal, 2000
•  Project summary: Since many TNC boards have control over economic resources greater than the gross domestic product of small states, they are central to the dialogue needed between rich and poor for an effective response to the challenges of poverty and marginalisation. We therefore urgently need an empirically-based analysis of the social psychological ‘mindsets’ within which TNC strategic thinking is formulated. This means penetrating beyond the public ideologies of TNCs as well as the hostile critiques made by ideological opponents.
The core methodology will entail in-depth study of corporate boards using semi-structured interviews, focus group techniques, and attendance at board meetings. The researcher will explore attitudes, assumptions and possible scenarios relating to poverty reduction, and give information about research findings, including the applicant’s work on the experience of humiliation among the poor. Access will be gained through existing contacts with sympathetic well-placed individuals and extended through snowball techniques. Depending on the response of the TNC, the researcher will (a) monitor the visible actions and public statements of the TNC, or (b) do this and also present research findings for monitored discussions in TNC focus groups, or (c) do this and also facilitate direct TNC dialogue with spokespeople for the global poor.

Mental Health and the Social Reconstruction of Destabilised Communities in South Eastern Europe
Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, postdoctoral research proposal, 2000
•  Project summary: The project envisaged is planned in co-operation with the Department of Psychology, University of Zagreb, Croatia. This department had the leading role in responding to the crises generated in the past ten years in the Balkans. Professor Dean Ajdukovic is the Chair for Social Psychology and Head of the Postgraduate Psychology Program at the Department. He is also a member of the Board of Directors of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) and of the Council of the International Society for Health and Human Rights (ISHHR). Apart from this, he is the president of the Society for Psychological Assistance (SPA), a regional non-profit, non-governmental mental health organization that has been very active in the SE Europe region. This organization has been able to maintain contacts with colleagues throughout the region in spite of the war and political problems. It has provided training, supervision and services in Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina, Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo and recently in Serbia to over 2,400 care-providers. The SPA web site at www.dpp.hr provides further information.

Das Welthaus (The Worldhouse)
Unpublished manuscript in German, begun in 2000, submitted for publication, in revision.

Konflikter og konfliktløsning
Oslo: Bidrag til etterutdanningskurs 'Kunst som arena for konfliktløsning' ved Kunsthøgskolen i Oslo, 31. mai 2000.
This presentation was an introduction into the research project on humiliation I am currently working on. The aim was to take the audience with me on the 'journey' of trying to understand in what way humiliation contributes to conflict at all levels (international, intergroup, interpersonal). I tried to show that the dynamics of humiliation have many aspects ranging from emotion to social structure. I included the cases of Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Germany and Slovenia.

Afrika / borgerkrig / fornedrelse: Interju med Eva Christine Hyge
NRK Radio utenrikssendingen, 'Verden på lørdag', program 2 (Norsk rikskringkasting / Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation), 5. februar 2000, 11.03 -12.00.
In the NRK utenrikssendingen ”Verden på lørdag” (“The World on Saturday”), channel 2, 11.03 -12.00 on 5th February 2000, the research project "The Feeling of Being Humiliated: A Central Theme in Armed Conflicts" was presented under the special heading “Afrika / borgerkrig / fonedrelse” (“Africa / Civil War / humiliation”). Genocides as happened in Rwanda in 1994 were addressed in their relation to humiliation. Furthermore inequality and poverty, both globally and locally, were identified as source of humiliation and its potential aftermath of hatred and violence.
Lytt til lydfilen.

• Overview over Doctoral Research: Somalia - A Case Study: Humiliation and Coping in War (earlier title: Humiliation, Genocide, Dictatorship, and the International Community: Somalia As a Case Study)
Oslo: Norges Forskningsråd / Norwegian Research Council, Utenriksministeriet / The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Universitetet i Oslo, University of Oslo, Psykologisk institutt / Department of Psychology, film, 2000. Technical director Lasse Moer.
Altogether ca. 10 hours of video material and 100 hours of audio material were collected by Evelin Lindner in Somaliland in 1998, and in Kenya and Rwanda/Burundi in 1999, for her doctoral thesis The Psychology of Humiliation: Somalia, Rwanda / Burundi, and Hitler's Germany (University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, submitted 31st October 2000, ISBN 82-569-1817-9). The film Somalia - A Case-Study: Humiliation and Coping in War (see also a MP4 version on YouTube) was produced in 2000 from the material that has largely been collected in Hargeisa, capital of 'Somaliland', a self-proclaimed republic in the north of Somalia which is not recognised by the international community or by other Somali leaders. The opinions expressed in this film by informants are their own subjective perceptions, and do not necessarily reflect the author's views. I would like to thank Lasse Moer, member of the HumanDSH Global Advisory Board, for his work in helping create this film.
This film aims at giving an impression of Evelin Lindner's field work in Somaliland with a selection of local views and descriptions of occurrences of humiliation and resilience to humiliation. For resilience to humiliation, see particularly the stories of the SORRA group, whose members spent almost a decade in solitary confinement as punishment for wanting to help the hospital in Hargeisa (sharing the fate of many intellectuals around the world who are the first victims of dicators), and the experience of former first lady Edna Adan, who is now a Member of the Global Advisory Board of the Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies network that grew out of Lindner's doctoral research. Also Hassan Keynan is a Member of the HumanDHS Global Advisory Board. Hargeisa has been bombed and destroyed a decade ago by Siad Barre's army, meaning that a state has ordered its own army to eradicate parts of its population. The film shows Hargeisa and its environment as a background for interviews focusing on the dynamics of humiliation. This film touches upon many very sensitive political topics and has caused passionate anger in Somali viewers, because they disagreed with what the Somali informants say in the film. The aim of this film, however, is not to make political or ideological statements, but to shed light on subjective feelings. In the film we meet for example the SORRA group, ca. 12 intellectuals who tried to improve the health services in Hargeisa in the beginning of the nineteen eighties and were imprisoned and kept in solitary confinement for 8 years. They demonstrate how they survived psychologically by inventing the 'language through the wall'.

Love, Holocaust and Humiliation. The German Holocaust and the Genocides in Rwanda and Somalia
I: Medlemsbladet for Norske leger mot atomkrig, Med bidrag fra psykologer for fred, nr. 3, november 1999, s. 28-29.
•  Historians usually describe the Treaty of Versailles after the First World War (28th June 1919) as 'humiliating' for Germany ('Schmach,' 'Schande') and argue that this humiliation 'pre-programmed' Germans for the Second World War (see for example Norbert Elias 1989). The 'humiliation' imposed by the Treaty of Versailles was the starting point for my current research project at the Institute of Psychology at the University of Oslo. In this project in the field of social psychology I am studying the genocide in Rwanda (1994) and Somalia (1988) against the background of the German Holocaust. Could humiliation lead to Holocaust, genocide and ethnic cleansing? This is the central question posed in my research. This is a short text where I present the follow-up questions that have to be posed in order to approach this subject. To understand more about Holocaust, genocide and ethnic cleansing seems especially urgent at present since it is an issue that continues to haunt us, not least in view of what is happening in Kosovo, Chechnya, East-Timor, Afghanistan, Tibet, etc., or with respect to international terrorism.

Women in the Global Village: Increasing Demand for Traditional Communication Patterns
In: Ingeborg Breines, Dorota Gierycz, and Betty Reardon (Ed.), Towards a Women's Agenda for a Culture of Peace. Paris: UNESCO, 1999, pp. 89-98.
The central hypothesis of this chapter is that globalisation widens the traditional female domestic sphere and narrows the traditional male public sphere. This means that women's traditional role description of maintaining social cohesion 'inside' a group is increasingly in demand. The 'global village' can be seen as a single 'inside' sphere. Maintaining social cohesion means complex, relational, multilateral, foresighted, integrative, and holistic strategies such as mediation, alternative dispute resolution, police deployment (e.g. peacekeeping forces) instead of traditional military combat. Subsidiarity, quality (and not quantity) of life, 'Culture of Peace,' all these are keywords, concepts which stem from traditional female role descriptions, showing how much the new strategies are conceptually female approaches. The traditional male role description of 'going out,' fighting the enemy and conquering the unknown, being uni-dimensional, unilateral, and more short-sighted, loses significance since it was only appropriate outside of the 'village.' The world as a single 'global village' no longer provides an 'outside.' Men themselves, as travellers and explorers, were responsible for this development which now makes their specific traditional strategies in many ways inappropriate and dysfunctional. UNESCO in promoting 'Culture of Peace' has articulated a keyword describing a more contemporary conceptualisation of the behavioural and functional needs of the 'global village.' 'Culture of Peace' is a multifaceted, creative combination of certain aspects of traditional 'male' and 'female' role strategies. The 'Culture of Peace' notion advocates on the social level what 'sustainable development' promotes on the ecological level. A better quality of life is projected as the likely result if a 'culture of peace' is combined with 'sustainable development.'
•  Mujeres en la aldea global: Creciente exigencia de los patrones tradicionales de comunicación
In: Ingeborg Breines, Dorota Gierycz, and Betty Reardon (Eds.), Mujeres a Favor De La Paz: Hacia Un Programa De Acción, 2002, pp. 117-129. Paris and Madrid: Ediciones UNESCO, NARCEA Ediciones, ISBN: 9788427713871
Contents:
•  Introduction by Ingeborg Breines, Dorota Gierycz, and Betty Reardon
Part One: Issues and problems of women's roles in war, peace and security
•  Chapter 1:
Women in decision-making: can we change the status quo? by Dorota Gierycz
•  Chapter 2: A gender perspective on a culture of peace by Ingeborg Breines
•  Chapter 3: Women, war and peace by Dan Smith
•  Chapter 4: Participation, citizenship and the implications of women's activism in the creation of a culture of peace by Angela Raven-Roberts
•  Chapter 5: Women in the global village: increasing demand for traditional communication patterns by Evelin Lindner
Part Two: Gender Critiques of peace and security policies and practices
•  Chapter 6:
Gender and the United Nations Agenda for Peace by Carolyn M. Stephenson
•  Chapter 7: Balancing co-operation and critique: preliminary considerations for a feminist view of the Agenda for Peace by Hanne-Margret Birckenbach
•  Chapter 8: Peacekeeping: a new role for women seeking peace by Judith Hicks Stiehm
•  Chapter 9: Women or weapons: the militaris sexist symbiosis by Betty A. Reardon
Part Three: Women's actions and initiatives for peace
•  Chapter 10: Gender, democracy and peace: the role of the women's movement in Latin America by Maria Elena Valenzuela
•  Chapter 11: Peaceful initiatives: the Soldiers' Mothers Movement in Russia by Elena Zdravomyslova
•  Chapter 12: Traditional mediating tecniques and women's conributions on a culture of peace by Jacqueline Adhiambo-Oduol

Humiliation Dynamics and Humiliation Entrepreneurship - The Dyad of Slave and Master
Bujumbura, Burundi: Rapport de la conférence internationale sur le rôle de l'éducation dans la promotion d'une culture de la convivialité, et l'édification des communautés, le 23 - 26 Février, Ministère de l'Education Nationale.
See video-tapes of this conference. Evelin did the filming. Please be aware that this video is unedited.
•  This paper was presented in Burundi, in an environment of ongoing violence and low-intensity warfare in the hills surrounding the capital. The presentation tries to draw lessons from clinical psychology and attempts to apply them to social and political psychology. It starts with the assumption that even the most rational human beings are not always able to master themselves. There are urges and desires which have a mighty strength and power. Humiliation is among the strongest.We currently observe a worldwide tendency for societies to transform from hierarchical to more egalitarian democratic structures that are built on human rights. Three 'categories' of actors can be differentiated who influence this transition: (1) the rising 'slave' (the 'category' of the oppressed, for example former colonised populations, black people, women, also nature, together with related phenomena as feelings, creativity, and individual privacy), (2) the affronted 'master' (the 'category' of the opressors, for example colonisers, 'white men,' males in general, also man's control over nature, together with related phenomena as ratio, intellect, normative control), and (3) the third parties coming from the international community, entailing both 'master' and 'slave' tendencies.Feelings of humiliation are released during the transition of societies to more democratic concepts and structures and this can lead to violence and extremism on all sides.The task to be tackled is to transcend extremism and strengthen more moderate standpoints. The following recommendations are made: Moderate members on both sides ('master' and rebelling 'slave') have to form alliances and treat, pacify and marginalise their extremist wings by respectful recognition of their plight. Moderate leaders have to minimise humiliation and frustration in the population in order to minimise the 'weaponry' which can be instrumentalised by extremist leaders.

Ledelse i et tverrkulturelt perspektiv
Oslo: Foredrag i psykologi kurs 'Organisasjon og kultur', Psykologisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo, 16. November 1999.
•  Ledelse i et tverrkulturelt perspektiv was a presentation given at the psychology course 'Organisasjon og kultur' at the University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, on 16th November 1999, organised by the psychology course 'Organisasjon og kultur.' The central topics of the presentations were 'globalisation' and 'cultural differences.' A model was presented which connects these phenomena and provides guidelines for better understanding of both globalisation and cultural differences. Furthermore a method (helicopter perspective) was presented which facilitates communication with counterparts from different cultural backgrounds.

Globalisering, kulturforskjell og 'helikopterblikk'
Oslo: Foredrag ved 'Forum for psykososialt arbeidsmiljø', Næringslivets Hovedorganisasjon (NHO, The Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise), 23. september 1999.
•  Globalisering, kulturforskjell og 'helikopterblikk' was a presentation given at Forum for psykososialt arbeidsmiljø, NHO, 23th September 1999 in Oslo, organised by Forum for psykososialt arbeidsmiljø, NHO. The central topics of the presentations were 'globalisation' and 'cultural differences.' A model was presented which connects these phenomena and provides guidelines for better understanding of both globalisation and cultural differences. Furthermore a method (helicopter perspective) was presented which facilitates communication with counterparts from different cultural backgrounds.

Globalisation, Cultural Differences, and "Helicopterview"
Oslo: Foredrag ved 'Lederdager '99'', Datateam, 13. april 1999.
•  Globalisation, Cultural Differences, and 'Helicopterview' was a presentation given at the 'Lederdager '99' of Datateam, 13th April 1999 in Oslo, organised by Datateam. The central topics of the presentations were 'globalisation' and 'cultural differences.' A model was presented which connects these phenomena and provides guidelines for better understanding of both globalisation and cultural differences. Furthermore a method (helicopter perspective) was presented which facilitates communication with counterparts from different cultural backgrounds.

Kulturforskjell, globalisering og helikopterblikk
Oslo: Foredrag ved 'Lederfaglig Forum', kompetanseunion, 1. september 1998.
•  Kulturforskjell, globalisering og helikopterblikk was a presentation given at the Lederfaglig Forum of kompetanseunion AS on 1st September 1998, organised by kompetanseunion AS. The central topics of the presentations were 'globalisation' and 'cultural differences.' A model was presented which connects these phenomena and provides guidelines for better understanding of both globalisation and cultural differences. Furthermore a method (helicopter perspective) was presented which facilitates communication with counterparts from different cultural backgrounds.

Globalisering, helikopterblikk og trend 2020
Wadahl, Norway: Foredrag ved det årlige møte av L. A. Lund, 29. august 1998.
• Globalisering, helikopterblikk og trend 2020 was a presentation given at the annual meeting of L. A. Lund in Wadahl on 29th August 1998, organised by L. A. Lund. The central topics of the presentations were 'globalisation' and 'cultural differences.' A model was presented which connects these phenomena and provides guidelines for better understanding of both globalisation and cultural differences. Furthermore a method (helicopter perspective) was presented which facilitates communication with counterparts from different cultural backgrounds.

Kulturforskjell, globalisering og helikopterblikk
Oslo: Foredrag ved Bærum Vest Rotary møte, 25. mai 1998.
•  Kulturforskjell, globalisering, og helikopterblikk was a presentation given at the Bærum Vest Rotary Foundation on 25th May 1998, organised by Bærum Vest Rotary. The central topics of the presentations were 'globalisation' and 'cultural differences.' A model was presented which connects these phenomena and provides guidelines for better understanding of both globalisation and cultural differences. Furthermore a method (helicopter perspective)was presented which facilitates communication with counterparts from different cultural backgrounds.

Hvordan vi skal forholde oss i andre kulturer
Numedal, Norway: Foredrag ved et Dresser Rand seminar ved Lampeland konferanse senter, 17. og 24. mars 1998
•  Hvordan vi skal forholde oss i andre kulturer was a presentation that was given twice at the Dresser Rand seminars on 17th and 24th March 1998, organised by Dresser Rand at Lampeland conference center. The central topics of the presentations were 'globalisation' and 'cultural differences.' A model was presented which connects these phenomena and provides guidelines for better understanding of both globalisation and cultural differences. Furthermore a method was presented which facilitates communication with counterparts from different cultural backgrounds.

Humiliation As Psychological Variable in Armed Conflict: What Is Our Common Sense Definition of Humiliation?
Oslo: Paper presented at the annual seminar of the Research Programme of the Multilateral Development Assistance Programme at Soria Moria, 19th - 20th February 1998.
•  The aim of this paper is to describe the conceptual space of the term humiliation. The method used is Grounded Theory, as firstly developed and presented by Glaser and Strauss, combined with the 'Psycho-logic' approach by Smedslund. 15 typical cases are presented, each starting with an 'utterance.' These 'utterances' stem from 52 texts that were collected during the period of March 1997 to December 1999 from people asked about their understanding of the term humiliation. The 15 'utterances' or cases are arranged in a way that makes the complexity of elements entailed in humiliation visible: In cases of humiliation there seems to be an actor, the one who humiliates, and a perceiver, the one who is humiliated. The humiliator may humiliate intentionally, having various aims attached to that, s/he may want to evoke precisely the feeling of humiliation in the perceiver, or s/he may only want to hurt generally. The reasons for the humiliating act vary, as do perceptions on the perceiver's side. This paper is part of a series of articles that aim at building a 'theory of humiliation' that connects social psychology with sociology, social anthropology, history and political science.

Hvordan gjøre oss forstått i andre kulturer
Oslo: Foredrag ved 'LederReform 2000', kompetanseunion, 13. oktober 1997.
•  Hvordan gjøre oss forstått i andre kulturer was a presentation at the LederReform 2000 conference, 13. October 1997 in Oslo, organised by kompetanseunion AS. The central topics of the presentation were 'globalisation' and 'cultural differences.' A model was presented which connects these phenomena and provides guidelines for better understanding of both globalisation and cultural differences. Furthermore a method was presented which facilitates communication with counterparts from different cultural backgrounds.

Språk og kjønn
Trondheim, Norway: Foredrag ved konferanse 'Kvinner viser vei', 1. april 1997.
•  'Kvinner viser vei' ('Women Show the Way') was a conference in 1997 with hundreds of participants from the whole of Norway. The presentation Språk og kjønn ('Language and Gender') addressed the relationship between the use of language and its speakers. The topics analysed were 'career' and 'career planning' as well as 'life planning,' especially in terms of which partners to chose and when to have children. The point was made that women tend to avoid using the language of 'career' and 'planning' and that they should be encouraged to think more in these lines.

Verortung der kulturvergleichenden Psychologie im wissenschaftlichen Diskurs
Oslo: Entwurf für ein Buch, 1996.

Ibrahim: En gift mann tok sin amerikanske elskerinne hjem til Kairo
In F.eks., 2 (Februar 1996), pp. 36-37.
•  Ibrahim kom fra en velstående, internasjonal orientert familie i Kairo. Han var gift og hadde to døtre. Ibrahim var en ung, ambisiøs arkitekt, og han bestemte seg for å reise til USA for videreutdanne seg. I USA forelsket han seg i Celia. Han følte at han hadde funnet den store kjærligheten. Han dro tilbake til Kairo, sammen med Celia. Artikkelen beskriver hvordan hans familie og venner brukte enorm sosial kunnskap for å langsomt føre ham tilbake til sin kone og barn. Historien ender med at Celia går så langt som å tilby Ibrahim å bli hans kone nummer to, men Ibrahim bare venter. Utmattet av ventingen reiser Celia tilbake til USA, - hun føler at deres kjærlighet har ingen sjans i Egypt. Ibrahim lover henne å følge etter, men kommer aldri. Artikkelen belyser hvordan den vestlige antagelsen at det er 'lett' i arabiske land å 'bytte' koner, er langt i fra sant i alle tilfeller, særlig ikke i Egypt.

The Feeling of Being Humiliated: A Central Theme in Armed Conflicts. A Study of the Role of Humiliation in Somalia, and Great Lakes Region, Between the Warring Parties, and in Relation to Third Intervening Parties. Outline of Research Project.
Oslo: Doctoral project description, University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, The Norwegian Research Council, Department of Multilateral Affairs, The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1996.
•  See also the French version:
Le sentiment d’être humilié: Un Thème central dans des conflits armés. Une étude du rôle de humiliation en Somalie et Burundi/Rwanda, parmi les partis belligérants, et par rapport aux tiers partis intervenants.

Think globally
Oslo: Draft for a book, 1995.

National Identity, Ethics, and Rational Choice - Their Influences on National Willingness to Share Sovereignty
Oslo: Project proposal developed together with The Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), for the Norwegian Research Council, 1995.

Identity, Security, and Rising Islamic Fundamentalism - a Study of Attitudes of Muslim Immigrant Groups in France, Germany, and the Netherlands
Oslo: Project developed with The Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), for the European Programme "Human Capital and Mobility," 1995.

EU: Det finnes viktigere spørsmål
Oslo: Innlegg skrevet for Aftenpostens kronikk, upublisert, 1995.

Globalization and Morality
Oslo: Essay submitted to the Norwegian Research Council's Ethics-Programme, and the University of Oslo, Department of Philosophy,1995.

Mediation As a New and Effective Tool in International Conflict Management
Oslo: Project developed with FAFO, Oslo, and the Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management / für Konstruktive Konfliktbearbeitung, Berlin, for the European Programme "Human Capital and Mobility," 1994.

Multikulturelle Gesellschaft und Asyl
Hamburg, Germany: Unpublished manuscript, 1991.

Studie eines teuren interkulturellen Missverständnisses - Fallstudie aus Ägypten und Schweden
Hamburg, Germany: Unpublished case study, 1991.

Erfahrungen einer Psychotherapeutin in Ägypten
Cairo, Egypt: Unpublished manuscript, 1992.

Hat Ägypten nur eine Vergangenheit - oder auch eine Zukunft? Tunis - ein avantgardistisches Künstlerdorf
Cairo, Egypt: Unpublished manuscript, 1991.

Konzept eines beispielhaften Projekts: Tourismus und Umwelt Flores 2000, Azoren, Portugal
Report über die Insel Flores, Azoren, Portugal, über das Potential der Insel für nachhaltige Entwicklung, eingereicht von Evelin Lindner im Februar 1991 bei der Europäischen Kommission im Auftrag des Bürgermeisters von Lajes auf der Insel Flores und Carlos Manuel da Silva, Hospital, Santa Cruz das Flores, Azoren, Portugal.
Report about the island of Flores, Azores, Portugal, presenting the island's potential for sustainable development, submitted to the European Community in 1991, together with the mayor of Lajes, Flores, and Carlos Manuel da Silva, Hospital, P-9970 Santa Cruz das Flores, Azoren, Portugal.

About Houses in Fajanzinha
Article published in the local newspaper on Flores, Açores, Portugal, December 1991, designed as a "letter" to the inhabitants, 1991.

Flores: A Diamond
Article published in the local newspaper on Flores, Açores, Portugal, December 1991, designed as a "letter" to the inhabitants, 1991.

Über die Einstellung von Ärzten zur Tätigkeit von klinischen Fachpsychologen: Speziell ausgewählte Ärztegruppen an Hamburger Kliniken und Institutionen der Gesundheitsbehörde
University of Hamburg, Germany: Diploma thesis, 1978, fulltext available at the Campus-Katalog Hamburg (search for Evelin Lindner).

Soziale Beziehungen an Bord eines Schulschiffes in Afrika
University of Hamburg, Germany: Study on the social relation on board of the training-ship "Kariba" of the German Africa Lines (DAL) during a journey from Europe along the coast of West Africa (Senegal, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Cameroon (three months), 1976.